Great Designs – Lamps and Lighting

Lamps and lighting fixtures for the home are in abundance – in shops and malls, designer outlets, mail order catalogues and online. The home decor market has increased as consumers have become more style savvy, with more disposable income not to mention the explosion of home makeover television programs.

That the home lighting market has gone into such overdrive should come as no shock. In particular the last decade has seen a great rise in lighting manufacturers and a proliferation of many innovative and highly creative lighting designers.

But lets not forget what really lies behind this exciting new upsurge in the design of light fittings: lamps and light fixtures for your home.

A good quality light fitting is one which satisfies the aesthetic requirements (for example, has colors which will match and/or complement the colors of its surroundings) and adheres to safety guidelines as well as being properly constructed. For instance, floor lamps need to have sturdy, robust bases so that they do not tip over easily. For safety reasons, properly manufactured light fixtures should not overheat and scorch the shade or object of light focus, and so forth. As

well as these other factors for consideration are the ease of installation, ease of maintenance, portability, durability, economy and adjustability.

To choose the correct light fixture for your surroundings, try to visualize the lighting effect you desire:

What do you want the light fitting to do?

Will the light source provided by this fitting be adequate for the task at hand?

Will this light source be complemented by other light fittings in the room?

How will this light fitting be controlled?

Depending on the type of light fitting you have in mind, the distribution of its light is affected by using the principles of diffusion, refraction or reflection and are further affected by the type, shape and style of fitting and the materials it is made from. For example, spotlights, desk lights and ceiling-mounted downlighters emit a precise and focussed beam of light on the objects they are directed at.

Baffles and louvers are other light-manipulating devices commonly used in light fixtures. A “baffle” is a device attached to a light fitting to help prevent glare. The grooved indentations often seen on the inside of many cylindrically shaped light fittings are “baffles”. The grooves have the effect of reducing apparent brightness when you look into the light fitting from certain angles.

Louvers are blades, made from translucent or opaque plastic and metal, which reduce glare by preventing a direct view through the opening of the light source fixture.

Despite the use of louvers and baffles in many lighting designs, the most common way of manipulating artificial light in a room is the shade. This could be an integral part of the light fitting (as with spotlights) or separate (as with the traditional table lamp).

The choice of lampshade is highly personal and is affected by factors such as the color, fabric and size of the shade. Of course, one is so spoilt for choice these days that it should not be too difficult to find the exact lampshade you need to match a particular style or color theme.



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What Is Your Rate?

What is your rate?

This is the one question on every business owner's mind, especially because renewal prices are generally trending upward. They ask the question as if they are buying gasoline, or an oil change for a car. If the gas station a few blocks down the street has a better price per gallon, then we go there. Every penny counts! This is the working mindset for commodity product shopping, toothpaste, shampoo, cotton swabs … whatever. We purchase it, use it up, throw away the empty package and go buy more. No brainer, easy!

Procuring energy for your business in today's market is not that simple. Unlike comparing gasoline prices at two different stations blocks apart on the same day, business owners do not typically have a way to compare multiple offers simultaneously. There are a lot more factors that go into the price / rate of energy procurement. Whomever you ask "What's your Rate?" needs some information from you in order to render a credible answer. They need to know usage, seasonal fluctuations, changes in use pattern, when your current contract ends, green energy requirements, bandwidth requirements, and so much more.

A much better question to ask your energy supplier rep would be: What is covered by your quoted rate? There are 7 factors that every energy supplier is legally obligated to pay. Your rate can cover all of them. However, not all rates cover all 7 factors. When all 7 factors are covered by the quoted rate, the rate is a fixed rate. When some factors are not included in your rate, your rate is variable. Those factors that are not covered by your rate will have to be paid somewhere. So you will either have monthly rate fluctuations or monthly line items added to your invoice. Both the fixed rate and variable rate products have their appropriate uses. The energy consumer must be advised on the different outcomes to be expected in total out-of-pocket expenses for their energy.

Then there are contract language considerations. Some contracts are very tight; others have a tremendous amount of wiggle room from the supplier. Some have stricter payment history requirements; I can not know what any company qualifies for without a fair amount of information from you, the business owner. I want to help you save time and money over time.

I recently had a meeting with a large independent grocery store owner. He just completed a renovation complete with lighting upgrades. He went from fluorescent tubes to LED lighting. His usage reduced enough to generate an addition bandwidth fee. The fee made his lighting upgrade not profitable in the short run. A thorough review of contract language could have saved this owner quite a bit of money.

Procuring energy for your business is more complex than rate shopping. Rate shopping wastes your time and your money.

You can start the process by having a utility bill audit. There is no up-front cost to you, and we may find that your company is eligible to receive hundreds of dollars each year in discounts and credits because your utility had been charging you incorrectly. You do not even need to change suppliers. You have nothing to lose and everything to gain.

Marco E. Dimbo – Procurement Expert Advisor at Ohio Energy Guide.



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Walkway Lighting – A Beautiful And Inexpensive Addition To Your Home

Moving into your new home or deciding to add some upgrades to your existing home is a great adventure, especially since there are so many different ideas that can make your home amazing. One of those ideas is walkway lighting, since it can make your home look great and keep it safe as well.

Even if your yard is small this kind of lighting will add to your home. It’s a great way to show off your landscaping, or even to add some additional light to make your home look more welcoming. It’s hard to feel welcome when you are approaching a dark house. Most homes don’t have enough outdoor lighting, but adding lighting to your walkway can provide just enough light to make your house and yard look great even at night.

But adding lighting will not only improve the curb appeal of your home, it will make it a safer place as well. It is essential for homes with stairs or curved walkway, but even works great at homes with straight walkways as well. The added light can make it easier for people arriving or leaving your home, while also keeping unwanted visitors away at night.

There are two types of walkway lights you can install at your home, both of which look great and provide great safety benefits. The first type, solar, only requires the power of the sun to work each night. They charge on their own during the day when the sun is out, and turn on by themselves when the sun starts to set. They don’t require an electric source other than the sun, and don’t need to be plugged in or turned on each night.

Electric lights obviously do require an electric source, but can be turned on and off whenever you please. They provide more light than typical solar lighting fixtures, but this can vary depending on the type of light bulb inside the fixture. They are installed much like Christmas lights, and can even be set on a timer to turn on the same time each night.

Walkway fixtures can be found in a number of different styles and colors, which makes them easy to fit almost any home décor. They work great at almost any home, and can make your house look more appealing while providing a safe atmosphere for your entire family. Solar and electric fixtures each have their advantages and disadvantages, and they both work great for their intended purpose.

If you are considering adding something new to your home, walkway lighting really is the way to go. It can completely change the look of the outside of your home, yet can be simple and inexpensive to install.



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Bathroom Lighting Ideas To Consider

Bathroom lighting can make the difference between one that is adequate and comfortable to one that is irritating and oftentimes not sufficient for your bathroom. This is why you need some bathroom lighting idea so your bathroom lighting will fall on the former category.

When looking around for the lighting to have on your bathroom, try to consider the manufacturer that offers fixture installation as well as the lighting. There are those that offer this kind of service. The best thing about getting them is that they are capable of considering the overall designs of your bathroom and will come up with the proper lighting to complete the whole bathroom design.

Furthermore, take into account the many purposes you and other members of the household are using the bathroom. It may be the area where you dress up and groom yourself. If this is the case, you probably would want the kind of lighting that does not reflect any shadows and shades.

If the prime purpose of the bathroom is for bathing and other related things, then having a centralized lighting fixture may be enough. You do not have to add more bulbs on the sides of a mirror. This is not the best option if you are also saving up on energy consumption.

Keep in mind also that there moist and moisture thrive inside the bathroom. Your lighting should be durable enough to withstand those things. If positioned improperly, it might even cause some serious problems to you and your home.

The bathroom is one part of the house where you and your family frequently come to. Having the right kind of lighting will ensure that all struggles in trying to look good are eliminated. It also means that you will not grope around just to find what you are looking for.

Look for some bathroom lighting idea that you think will suit your needs the most. With the variety of ideas out there, there is definitely one that will work for you and your bathroom.



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Add Nighttime Function to Your Home with Outdoor Lighting

Would you like to increase the amount of time that you can spend outdoors at your home? Having the right scheme of outdoor lighting to allow for nighttime use of an area is the most important factor for allowing you to do this. The types of lighting you should consider using to enhance your outdoor area include: porch or patio lighting, garden or landscape lighting, and path lighting.

Porch or patio lighting should be carefully planned, since these places are the most common functional areas used at night. This is also a great type of lighting to use around a swimming pool to allow for use at night. Lighting for these areas is very important for safety and visibility. The lighting needs to be reliably bright, making wall mounts and flood lights common choices. Lighting for a porch or patio does not have to be mounted on the exterior of the house. Rope lights and deck post lights are two examples of lights that attach to your porch, not your house.

Garden or landscape lighting is used to highlight special features and focal points of your landscaping. Many lights of the same lighting type can be used in an area, and they can be placed at strategic locations in your garden so that you can enjoy its beauty at night as well as during the day. Special garden lights such as spotlights can be used to highlight focal points of your landscape, such as a fountain or water garden.

Path lighting is great for clearing a walkway in your outdoor living area. It also looks great when it's used to define the perimeter of an area, such as a freestanding flower garden.
Before purchasing outdoor lighting fixtures, be sure that they are designed for outdoor use. Outdoor lighting fixtures are made to be durable and resistant to weather conditions, so they are made of strong materials including shatterproof glass, plastic, aluminum, and stainless steel.



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Benefits of Solar Lighting

A solar light is one that captures the sun’s rays and stores them to then power the light when it becomes dark. Seems easy enough, right? And it is. A solar light will have a solar panel or photovoltaic cell that the energy from the sun is captured in and then that energy is stored in a rechargeable gel cell battery for future use. Once the sun goes down, a controller senses that no more energy is being gathered so it automatically turns on the LED light and viola, you have light that is using energy from the sun.

LED lights, or light emitting diodes will emit that light in a controlled way, efficiently and they also have a long life, meaning you won’t be replacing those solar lights any time soon.

So we know what solar lights are and how they work, but how are they beneficial for us? For starters they are totally green. This means environmentally friendly because they don’t need to be plugged in, they aren’t draining our electricity and they are not emitting any harmful gasses back into the atmosphere. In other words, they are clean.

Solar lights are also renewable. Each day the energy gets renewed by the sun. You don’t have to replace them each day, they simply go about their business of recycling the sun’s energy day after day, even when the sun isn’t shining directly onto them. They are also a benefit because they are available all of the time. Once it gets dark they come on, each and every night. They are reliable, easy to install and offer a low voltage option when compared to other sources of light.

Solar lights are stand alone. They don’t need to be near an outlet or near anything in particular. They can be used anywhere and everywhere from gardens to docks and from boats to walkways. They light our way no matter where we may be and they save energy doing it. They are also durable and long lasting so you aren’t replacing them each and every year.

Solar lights are a unique way to make your home more beautiful, they come in many applications and many shapes and sizes, but they all do the same thing– They use a renewable resource to power themselves, and since the sun isn’t going anywhere they can be used indefinitely. Solar is a great way to light our way, each and every day.



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Ceiling Fan Light Kit – An Ideal Lighting

If you have a ceiling fan but no lighting attached to it, you are missing an ideal lighting option for your home. You can buy a ceiling fan light kit if your fan did not come with a lighting option that will customize your fan to look fantastic in any room of your home.

You can browse the sites of the major lighting and ceiling fan manufacturers and look for bargains and deals you can not find in stores. You can search for a special on ceiling fan light kit if you do some comparison shopping. There are many places for you to find a ceiling fan light kit that you will not have to pay retail for. You can find deals on ceiling fan light kit that will amaze you and leave room in your budget for even more home improvements.

It is fairly easy to install a ceiling fan light kit. Even for those who do not consider themselves handy, installing a ceiling fan light kit can be simple and easy. All ceiling fan light kit comes with complete instructions including electrical information in order for you to install your ceiling fan light kit with the least amount of trouble and time.

If you have bought a ceiling fan light kit that you have to wire yourself you should begin by removing the switch housing cover plate from the fan. You will then need to remove the plug that is in the center of the cover plate.

Begin to feed the ceiling fan light kit wires that are black and white through the holes you find in the coverplate. Then attach the plate tightly to the ceiling fan light kit to ensure that it does not vibrate and come loose.

You will need to find the two wires that are in the switch housing that is labeled "for light". These wires will be white and blue. Then connect them to the ceiling fan light kit wires with wire nuts, matching the corresponding colored wires together. You can use some electrical tape to ensure the wire nuts do not come loose from vibration during use.

Finally, push the wires back carefully into the switch housing. You will then attach the ceiling fan light kit to the switch housing with the screws you were provided with.



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Seagull Lighting Island Pendants: Another Reason to Visit the Kitchen

People often say that the kitchen is the heart of a home and so it needs more reason to shine brightly even in the darkest times. Seagull Lighting, a historic lighting company has been in the industry for over 95 years and has consistently featuring many illuminations for all kinds of building and areas. Island pendants are a favorite among homemakers as they can do all the duties with the right kind of lighting. Let us see a few collections below.

West Town:

This royal collection exudes elegance that can ornate a room equally as it brightens it. The sophisticated design enterprises of rain-drop shaped crystals at the bottom with its six lights available in both incandescent and energy-star rated bulbs. Created in two finishes- Burnt Sienna with Oatmeal Faux Linen glass and Chrome with White Faux Linen glass, the West town is designed to attract people into the kitchen more. The traditional light fixture would go great with classic and vintage themed homes.

Jourdanton:

This transit Seagull Lighting island pendant is constructed with perforated metal on the outside that engulfs a faux silk shade on the inside. Only having a single finish option of Brushed Nickel with satin etched glass, this four-light ceiling fixture can be fitted into damp locations as well. With incandescent and fluorescent 60W bulbs fitted, this futuristic light can be very eye-catching in the kitchen.

Dunning:

This style statement does not only attract all the attention but also create a rustic vibe perfect for the kitchen space. It can be clearly seen that it the design is inspired by farmhouses and country homes. The bold design enterprises of a wooden rectangular frame in Oak finish that surrounds the four lights that is suspended by two metal chains. Stardust finish with crème parchment glass is the only variant available which can work with either incandescent or fluorescent bulbs that comes with the light fixture when ordered online.

Perryton:

This collection collection from Seagull Lighting is a minimalistic island pendant that shouts traditional design when you lay your eyes upon it. The Blacksmith finish transports you back in time and gets you nostalgic about previous times. This eight-light pendant that functions with 60W candelabra torpedo bulbs is shaped like candles inside a them frame resembling a house suspended in the air by two straight rods.

There are other styles of island pendants available and one should choose per their requirement and home setting. This is a great way of giving light to the kitchen. These kinds of pendants are usually placed over the island counter in a kitchen helping the family to finish their work. This kind of lighting solution can be fixed above a dining table as well. Another option of installing pendants in your kitchen is to arrange a bunch or a couple of one or two-light pendants in a personal kind of arrangement adding more character to the space.



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Basic Kitchen Lighting Guidelines

Kitchens are constantly evolving at an unbelievable pace. Modern day kitchens have turned dramatically from a room wherein we prepare our meals to the core of modern family activities.

With the multitude of activities going on in our kitchens, we do need the right lighting for performing each and every task, right? The right lighting may help provide us comfort, ease and aids in highlighting designer pieces or other interesting focal points.

But do you know what kind of lighting you need? Not all lights are created equal! There are just about as many types of lighting required for every area around our kitchen to help us perform our tasks better.

We carry out many different activities in our counters, sinks and stove area. This is the area we use to prepare the ingredients for our sumptuous dinner, wash the dishes and cook our food. Sadly, however, these areas are also the ones which are generally in shadows. So that you can choose the most appropriate lighting for every nook in your kitchen, here are some basic tips which may help you.

. Task lighting may be needed to be installed in the counter, sink and stove areas to facilitate ease and comfort of doing our tasks. Lighting fixtures should preferably be fitted under the cabinets. The light source should be enclosed close to the front part of the cabinets and should up to two thirds of the length of the counter. This should give us ample light.

. If there are no cabinets directly above the counter, pendant fixtures can be considered as the best way to go. A general recommendation is to provide a 60 to 75 watt bulb for every 20 inches of counter space. That will provide you with enough illumination for the task at hand!

. You may also want to consider installing recessed or surface mounted lights. These are ideally placed 16 to 24 inches apart. Just remember that there should be a constant flow of air around the fixture enclosure to prevent overheating.

. To illuminate the stove area, you can use a 60 watt bulb for the built-in hood light. If the stove has no hood, you can opt to install a recessed or surface mounted lighting unit over the center of the stove (approximately 15 to 18 inches apart). Either of these options will provide you sufficient lighting for your cooking needs!

. For the sink area, a pendant lighting centered at about 30 inches above the area can provide the correct lighting requirements.

Let's go a step ahead of the basics. To add character to our kitchens, here are some ideas which may stir the creative artist in you!

. If you have it, flaunt it! Arrange fine china and other eye-catching display items or unique collections in glass-fronted shelves. Highlight these by backing the cabinets in an outer window to use the natural light of the sun in highlighting the items or by directing surface mounted halogen lights towards them. Voila! Drama is played wonderfully in your kitchen area!

. Add focal interest to your eating area. Consider hanging pendant lights on the ceiling above a breakfast nook or dining table.

. Down light, anyone? If you use the dining table for other purposes such as getting paper works done, having bills organized or as a study area for the kids, you may want to consider installing a down light. It can certainly cater to these varied needs!

. Mix and match it! If you use the kitchen as a family gathering place, a place to entertain guests or for such other purposes, you can elect to mix different kinds of lighting fixtures. Standing lamps and table lamps may be great to provide ample lighting for sitting and reading areas around the kitchen.



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Penis Skin Discoloration – Four Possible Causes

Regardless of the attention that men give to the condition of their skin in general, the penis is almost always a cause for concern; the average man could draw a map of his package with his eyes closed. As a result, it is not surprising that the appearance of anything unusual – from dryness to bumps to red spots or acne – can turn into a source for anxiety.

While a discolored penis is generally nothing to worry about, there are a variety of issues that can change the appearance of the penis skin. Understanding the possible causes of penile discoloration can ease men’s worry about minor variations in pigmentation and to know when they should seek medical attention for their penis health.

Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation

It is not uncommon for men, especially those with darker skin, to have some variations in coloration; in fact, for men of all races, it is normal for the penis to be a slightly different color than the skin on the rest of the body. When darker skin seems to appear suddenly or over a short period of time, it is natural for men to worry. One possible explanation for the occurrence of darker skin is a condition known as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), which is simply an over-production of melanin in the affected area.

This condition typically follows an injury to the skin; irritation from aggressive masturbation or sex is a likely cause for PIH of the penis. A penis affected by PIH may have areas of skin that appear darker brown, or bluish or gray. While this may cause some social embarrassment, it is not contagious and generally fades over time. Treatment with retinol (vitamin A), laser resurfacing, or microdermabrasion may be helpful in reducing the discoloration.

Bruising

Bruising of the penis following an injury can cause the skin in the affected area to darken or to take on a purple, blue or even greenish appearance. A minor penis injury followed by bruising may not be a cause for concern, but a sudden blow to the member or impact during intercourse could result in a penile fracture and should be treated immediately to prevent long-term complications.

Hematoma

A red, blotchy appearance or visible blood vessels under the skin’s surface may also result from penile injury. The discoloration will generally fade as the injury heals, but any discomfort or pain accompanying these symptoms is a sign that medical attention may be needed.

Penile Vitiligo

In some individuals, areas of skin on the body, including the penis, may fade in color of over time until they become almost completely white. The cause for this is not yet known, but it is not a cause for concern except as a cosmetic issue.

When to get help for discolored penis skin

Men who experience any of the following symptoms along with discolored penis skin should seek a professional medical opinion:

  • Pain;
  • Bleeding;
  • Itching or burning;
  • Scaly, patchy skin or unusual sores;
  • Discharge.

Even when there is nothing to worry about, seeing a qualified urologist or dermatologist can help to ease men’s concerns about their penis. While it may feel awkward for some men to talk to a doctor about these issues, trained medical professionals have seen it all before and are there to help.

Self-care for men with discolored penis skin

Establishing a daily care regimen for the penis can also help to rejuvenate the penile skin and improve its overall appearance. Washing with a mild cleanser and rinsing thoroughly can help to remove dead skin cells and accumulated body fluids that increase the risk of irritation and infection; and applying an all-natural penis nutrient cream (most health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil) that is enriched with vitamins, antioxidants and moisturizers can help to slough away dead skin cells and allow for the growth of new, healthy skin.



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Bee Movie and Beowulf Movie Review

Bee Movie Review

Bee Movie” stars a very talented voice cast led by Jerry Seinfeld, Mathew Broderick, and Renee Zellweger. This animated film takes place in New York City, where a bee by the name of Barry leaves his bee hive to explore the outside world.

Barry B. Benson (Jerry Seinfeld) has just graduated from college with his buddy Adam Flayman (Mathew Broderick). After Barry realizes that he will be working with the same job for the rest of his life, he decides to explore outside of the hive before he doesn’t have a chance to. Once Barry leaves the hive, but he breaks one very important bee rule: Never talk to humans. He meets a human by the name of Vanessa Bloome (Renee Zellweger), who saved his life. The two become close friends, but soon Barry finds out that the humans have been stealing honey from the bees for profit. He decides to sue the human race for stealing their honey.

Jerry Seinfeld adds some witty humor to a well mannered story about bees that will even amuse ones who aren’t fans of Jerry Seinfeld. This is a step towards great animation that adults will enjoy just as much as the children. Not a moment is dull in this sweet gift of a film. Although, some moments are absolutely ridiculous, those are overlooked considering all of the animated duds made this year. This is one of the better animated films of the year.

Bee Movie has all the special ingredients that make these films bearable for adults. It has a few big laughs scattered through the whole film. Jerry Seinfeld puts forth a worthy family film that has many clever moments. “Bee Movie” is funny, witty, and as sweet as honey.

A clever little animated flick that, in my humble opinion, puts a sting on “Ratatouille”. “Bee Movie” is sure to please kids as well as entertain adults with its clever ideas. Funny at times and has a talented cast. Spread the buzz around to those who found “Ratatouille” a bore.

Beowulf Movie Review

“Beowulf” stars Ray Winstone, Anthony Hopkins, John Malkovich, Robert Wright Penn, Brendan Gleeson, Crispin Glover, Alison Lohman, and Angelina Jolie. The film takes place in a village that is being disrupted by a beast. This is an adventure/fantasy that will be marveled only by its new age of animation.

“Beowulf” starts off with the village having a loud party that agitates the town beast, who has sensitive ears and goes by the name Grendal (Crispin Glover). The king (Anthony Hopkins) is tired of the destruction that Grendal has caused the town and calls upon the hero Beowulf (Ray Winstone). Beowulf then agrees to slay the beast. After his encounter with Grendal ends with Grendal missing an arm, Beowulf is unaware that the beast has an angry mother (Angelina Jolie) that he must face after slaying Grendal.

“Beowulf” puts the stunning animation that was used for “The Polar Express” to bloody good use. The problem with Beowulf is the remarkably bad dialog that produces a few unintentional (?) laughs. It was hard to tell if Robert Zemeckis was trying to make the film satirical on purpose. The only way to see this film is in theaters because the animation wouldn’t look as good on DVD. Strikingly entertaining as far as visuals go.

Another major problem with “Beowulf” is the ending, which I call a momentum stealer. It may have a connection with the story, but with such a slow paced ending to such a briskly paced film makes for a disappointing conclusion. As far as animation goes, this is the best I have seen all year. This is a huge leap from the poorly written and badly executed “Polar Express”, but still has it’s flaws that linger.

“Beowulf” is a visually captivating movie experience. There are two things that I couldn’t help but linger on. One is the laughably bad dialog, and the other is the ending takes away from the film’s energy. I will have to say that this film has one thing worth recommending, it’s thrillingly beautiful animation, and therefore fails as a whole.



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Body Basics: Alimentary Canal – How the Digestive System Works

Food is the fuel of the body. But before it can be of any use, it must be properly processed. The body’s food processing plant is the alimentary canal, a muscular tube about 10 m (33ft) long which starts at the mouth and ends at the anus.

When food is put in the mouth, it is tested for taste and temperature by the tongue. Solid food is bitten off by the front teeth (incisors), and then chewed by the back teeth or molars. Even before the food is tasted, and during chewing, saliva pours into the mouth from salivary glands near the lower jaw.

Saliva moistens food, and the enzymes it contains start digestion. By the time it is ready to be swallowed; the original mouthful has been transformed into a soft ball, called a bolus, and warmed or cooled to the right temperature.

Though quick, this stage is in fact quite complex. First the tongue pushes the bolus of food up against the roof of the mouth and into the muscle-lined cavity at the back of the mouth: the pharynx. Once food is in the pharynx, several activities take place within the space of a couple of seconds to prevent swallowing from interfering with breathing.

From the pharynx, the bolus now passes into the oesophagus, or gullet, the tube joining the mouth to the stomach. The bolus does not just fall down the oesophagus because of gravity but is pushed along by waves of muscle action called peristalsis.

Except during eating, the oesophagus is kept closed by a ring of muscles called the cardiac sphincter which prevents the highly acid contents of the stomach from being regurgitated into the oesophagus. As a bolus of food passes down the oesophagus, the sphincter relaxes to open the pathway into the stomach.

The stomach is a collapsible muscular bag designed to store food (so that it is not usually necessary to eat small meals all day long), to mix food with various digestive juices, then to release it slowly into the intestine.

Food is mixed as the stomach wall contracts and relaxes and is moved along by waves of peristalsis. By the time it has spent two to six hours being processed in the stomach, the partially digested food has been converted by various chemicals to a liquid called chyme.

The stomach exit is guarded by a muscle known as the pyloric sphincter. As the waves of peristalsis push chyme through the stomach, the sphincter lets out chyme in small amounts into the small intestine.

The small intestine is in fact the longest section of the alimentary canal, measuring 20ft (6m) and getting its name not from its length but its width – about 1 ½ in. (4cm). The largest part of the digestive process takes place in the small intestine, through the action of digestive juices made not only by the intestine itself, but by the liver (bile) and the pancreas (pancreatic secretions).

As waves of peristalsis move chime along the small intestine, it is given another thorough mixing. When more food enters the stomach, a valve at the end of the small intestine opens and chyme passes into the large intestine, a tube about 3ft (1.5m) long and an average 7.5 cm (3 in.) in diameter.

In the large intestine, water is absorbed into the blood from the liquid remains of digestion. By the time these remains reach the rectum, they are in the form of solid faeces. Rather than the continuous contractions of peristalsis, the progressively more solid remains are moved along by giant propulsions that take place only a few times a day.

Finally, faeces enter the anal canal, which is kept closed by the last sphincter in the alimentary canal. In infancy, the sphincter opens automatically when the anal canal is full. But as the nervous system matures, we learn to override the automatic signals.

The alimentary canal processes approximately 35 tons of food during the course of an average life of 70 years. No wonder, then, that it sometimes goes wrong. Some ills of the alimentary canal are so common they have become household words – ulcers, appendicitis, constipation, diarrhoea and heartburn, to name a few. While some are unavoidable, there are ways to keep the digestive system healthy.

  • Do not eat (or feed children) too much. This puts a strain on the digestion and can create a weight problem. In infants it can lead to vomiting and regurgitation.
  • Chew your food properly before swallowing. The digestion of carbohydrates starts in the mouth with ptyalin, an enzyme in saliva.
  • Include sufficient roughage in your diet – fruit with the skin on, lightly cooked vegetables, bran with your breakfast cereal. Dietary fibre cannot be digested by the alimentary canal but stimulates the passage of food through the large intestine, helping to prevent constipation and perhaps some intestinal diseases as well.
  • Avoid any foods you know you or your family react to badly.
  • Minimize stress. This increases the acid secretion of the stomach and the muscular action of the whole system, causing food to be pushed along too fast so that it is not properly digested.
  • Stop smoking, cut down, because, like stress, it stimulates acid secretion.



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Comparison Between Egyptian and Mesopotamian Religions and Beliefs!

The religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians were the dominating influence in the development of their culture. The Egyptian faith was based on a collection of ancient myths, nature worship, and innumerable deities. Sumerian lives were spent serving the gods in the form of man-made statues. There was no organized set of gods; each city-state had its own patrons, temples, and priest-kings. The Sumerians were probably the first to write down their beliefs, which were the inspiration for much of later Mesopotamian mythology, religion, and astrology. Sumerians believed that the universe consisted of a flat disk enclosed by a tin dome. While the Mesopotamian’s didn’t have anything quit to scale with the pyramids, they did use and build ziggurats for religious purposes.

Both civilizations were centered on religion. Egypt believed in many gods. The gods Mesopotamia believed in tended to be absolute rulers to whom the people owed total devotion. In both civilizations religious leaders were given very high status and held in high regard. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt are two religions that believed in monotheism. Both Egypt and Mesopotamia were polytheistic, that is, they believed their worlds were ruled by more than one god. Both civilizations believed that the gods created them. Both cultures also believed that they themselves were created for the purpose of serving their gods. Both worshipers took their names from the numerous gods and the cults that honored the deities, and priests in both religions were no special clothes, and made daily offering in the temples and held annual festivals open to public.

Mesopotamian religion saw humans as the servants of the gods, who had to be appeased for protection. Egyptians believed that the gods created all humans but were also controlled by the principle of maat, or order. Unlike followers of Mesopotamian religion, the Egyptians had a strong belief in the afterlife, which they expressed by building elaborate tombs such as the pyramids. The Sumerian afterlife involved a descent into a gloomy netherworld to spend eternity in a wretched existence as a Gidim (ghost). Egyptians believed that their gods had created Egypt as a sort of refuge of good and order in a world filled with chaos and disorder. The major god for much of Mesopotamia was the sky god Enlil; later th e worship of Enlil was replaced by the worship of the Babylonian god Marduk. For Egyptians, Amen-Ra was the most powerful deity, chief of the pantheon. Statues of winged bulls were a protective symbol related to the god Sin Mesopotamia, while the ankh, a kind of cross with a loop at the top, was a prominent representation of life in ancient Egypt. The Enuma Elish tells the Mesopotamian story of creation and explains how Marduk became the chief of the gods. The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a guide for the dead, setting out magic spells and charms to be used to pass judgment in the afterlife. Ancient Nippur was the site of the chief temple to Enlil, while Babylon was the location of Marduk’s sanctuary. Thebes and the temple complex of Karnak were home to the worship of Amen- Ra. In the modern world the remains of these early religions can be seen in Egypt’s pyramids, tombs for the pharaohs, and in Mesopotamia’s ziggurats, temples to the gods. The New Year’s Festival was a major event in Mesopotamian religion, while Egypt’s most important festival was Opet. Because Egypt was the “gift of the Nile” and generally prosperous and harmonious, Egyptian gods tended to reflect a positive religion with an emphasis on a positive afterlife. In contrast, Mesopotamian religion was bleak and gloomy. Ancient Mesopotamian prayers demonstrate the lack of relationships with gods and goddesses who viewed humans with suspicion and frequently sent calamities to remind everyone of their humanity. Such was the message found in the Gilgamesh Epic.

Although the religions of both civilizations shared many similarities, the differences were vast. The most notable ones are the importance and belief of afterlife and the relationship between Gods. Because of these differences, we believe, the civilizations were different because in early times, civilizations revolved around their beliefs and values but unfortunately, there was an end to these great civilizations.



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Tie Colors – What Does it Mean by Wearing Certain Colored Ties?

Neckwear is associated with business, special occasions and sophistication. Skimping on a quality tie or wearing an out-of-style tie can send the wrong message at an important time, so too can the color of the tie.

What message am I projecting by wearing this colored tie? Here are some basic colors worn, and the message they project:

Red is the color of fire and blood, so it is associated with energy, war, danger, strength, power, determination as well as passion, desire, and love. By wearing a red tie it means I am a fighter. I will not give up or give in. I mean what I say and say what I mean. I am energetic and take the initiative. Watch out, I am ready for all!

Pink signifies romance, love, and friendship. It denotes feminine qualities and passiveness. By wearing a soft pink or mid pink tie it means you accept equality and you want to work together. It also means that you want to develop strong working relationships. By wearing a darker shade of pink it means you are romantic. Pink ties are great for dates! A lady always loves a man who is “man” enough to wear pink!!!!

Chocolate/ Brown- Brown is an earthy color and means you are well grounded (grounded to the earth). By wearing a brown tie it means I am a thinker. I will take everything in and make a decision later. Do not underestimate me. I have the time to do things right. I am no one’s fool.

Shades of Blue- Blue is the color of the sky and sea. It is often associated with depth and stability. It symbolizes trust, loyalty, wisdom, confidence, intelligence, faith, truth, and heaven.

Royal Blue- By wearing a Royal blue colored tie it means let’s work together. Let’s cooperate. Let’s work things out. I am ready to compromise if it will be constructive. Blue is always a great choice for job interviews.

Light Blue/ Dusty Blue- By wearing a light blue/ Dusty blue colored tie it means follow me and my dream. I will lead you in the right direction. I have hope in the future and you will too, listen to my message.

Dark Blue/ Navy- By wearing a dark/navy blue colored tie it means I am not in the mood for foolishness. Be serious when you are around me. Do not waste my time.

Yellow/ Lemon/ Gold – Yellow is the color of sunshine. It’s associated with joy, happiness, intellect, and energy. By wearing a yellow tie it means I am a positive person and full of energy. I am not a quitter and I will finish what I started. I am also an intelligent person.

Purple/ Lilac – Purple combines the stability of blue and the energy of red. Purple is associated with royalty. It symbolizes power, nobility, luxury, and ambition. It conveys wealth and extravagance. Purple is associated with wisdom, dignity, independence, creativity, mystery, and magic. By wearing a purple or lilac tie it means I am a good teacher. I know what you need to know and will impart that information to you. Learn from my independence and creativity.

Green/ Lime/ Aqua- Green is the color of nature. It symbolizes growth, harmony, freshness, and fertility. Green has strong emotional correspondence with safety. Dark green is also commonly associated with money. By wearing a lighter shade of green or lime it means I am harmonious. I want to resolve conflict to work effectively. By wearing a darker shade of green it means I am ambitious and I want to succeed.

White is associated with light, goodness, innocence, purity, and virginity. It is considered to be the color of perfection. By wearing a white tie it means I want to purify my thoughts and actions to make way for a fresh beginning. White is perfect for weddings and special occasions.

Black is associated with power, elegance, formality, death, evil, and mystery. Black denotes strength and authority; it is considered to be a very formal, elegant, and prestigious color (black tie, black Mercedes). Black is also the symbol of grief. By wearing black tie it means you are ready for a formal occasion. It also means I am ready for the unknown and I am opening the door to mystery.

Silver/ Grey are lighter shades of black and have similar meanings to black but to a lesser extent. By wearing a silver/ grey tie it also means you are ready for a formal occasion and you are a powerful person.

Color Combinations – Design of Ties

Not everyone is consciously sending you messages by wearing ties.

World leaders and movers and shakers who are filmed by the press and are in the news know they must make statements.

The guy next to you at work may not have the same idea.

The color combinations and tie designs however are chosen by people in an unconscious manner. When they wear them however, they have made some choice. If their color combinations are predominantly in any of the colors above, they are making the same statements, or appropriately so.

Consider the color of the guy’s tie (predominant) and design. If they are confusing, he may be confused. If they are vibrant and a particular color you may be able to pick what message they are sending.

Take time think about what message you are sending when you choose your next tie. There is a very strong message to make in the language of the ties.



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Prospective Reflections on Computers and Technology

The millennium era is the season for information technology, internet and computers. They become the parts and parcel of our daily life. We cannot dream of living without them. In order to honor them, I provide in this article, various prospective reflections on computers and technology.

Here they are:

  • Technology is ruled by two types of people: those who manage what they do not understand and those who understand what they do not manage.
  • Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.
  • The first rule of any technology used in a business is that automation applied to an efficient operation will magnify the efficiency. The second is that automation applied to an inefficient operation will magnify the inefficiency.
  • Information Technology and business are becoming inextricably interwoven. I don’t think anybody can meaningfully talk about one without talking about the other.
  • Technology is nothing. What’s important is that you have a faith in people, that they are basically good and smart and if you give them tools, they will do wonderful things with them.
  • Every once in a while, a new technology, an old problem and a big idea turn into an innovation.
  • The science of today is the technology of tomorrow.
  • I think it’s fair to say that personal computers have become the most empowering tool we’ve ever created. They are tools of communication, they are tools of creativity and they can be shaped by their user.
  • Treat your password like a toothbrush. Don’t let anybody else use it and get a new one every six months.
  • The next major explosion is going to be when genetics and computers come together. I am talking about an organic computer – about biological substances that can function like a semiconductor.
  • Computing is not about computers anymore. It is about living.
  • With all the abundance we have of computers and computing, what is scarce is human attention and time.
  • The new information technology – internet and email – have practically eliminated the physical costs of communications.
  • Part of the inhumanity of the computer is that, once it is competently programmed and working smoothly, it is completely honest.
  • By the time we get to the 2040s, we’ll be able to multiply human intelligence a billion-fold. That will be a profound change that’s singular in nature. Computers are going to keep getting smaller and smaller. Ultimately, they will go inside our bodies and brains and make us healthier and smarter.

Summing up, those are quite a few reflections on computers and technology that speak boldly on their prospects, importance and efficiency.



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The Adventure Party – How to Throw an Amazing Adventure Party

An adventure party can take on a lot of different ideas. However, when you think of a traditional adventure party you can create an absolute wonderland for the boys. For this theme you can think treasure island, MASH 4077, survival strategies and skills, or you can engage some of the amazing venues that are set up to thrill the party guests and birthday boy. Also, don’t underestimate your own backyard, or a local park with some amazing play equipment.

The cake

A chocolate mud cake covered in chocolate icing and decorated with action figurines or a treasure map where X marks the spot. Another idea is an island paradise cake that has sand, palm trees and skull and crossbones, while a piñata cake filled with lolly spiders, worms, gold coins and other edible treasures will also be lots of fun. You can decorate a favourite cake in camouflage colours or individual cupcakes decorated with obstacle course paraphernalia. And for the experts – a cake in the shape of a camouflage truck or jungle with tree huts, rope ladders and climbing nets, will be the envy of all the guests. Finally, but not completely, make a pond of slime (using jelly), quicksand (crushed biscuits) or mud (chocolate mousse) in a large deep dish, hide edible objects in it and decorate the top with candles and a happy birthday message. After singing the birthday song, let them all “dig in”.

The food

Include cups of chocolate mousse with wriggly worms and snakes inside. Jelly cups and quicks and cups (crushed biscuits) full of edible treats or red and green grape kebabs that look like worms and grubs. Calamari rings and hot chips (or for the more adventurous deep fried baby octopus) in noodle boxes or noddle boxes and mini burgers or hotdogs. Spring rolls or rice paper rolls, party pies and sausage rolls in survival tins. Then include some rice and pasta salads that resemble worms and maggots and meatballs in sauce with risoni pasta. Another option is nachos or a mild curry in takeaway boats, tortillas and various dips with strips of lightly toasted mountain bread for dipping. Don’t forget bubbling jungle juice or small thermoses filled with chocolate milk. BBQ sausages with onions, tomato sauce and mustard and a choice of bread rolls or bread slices will also fill hungry tummies. Pizza strips with ham, cheese and olives or cheese and ham or vegemite pinwheels. Popcorn in sacks and chocolate and caramel tarts with X marking the spot.

The games

Keep the guests busy with these fun games:

  • An obstacle course can be organised in the park using the play equipment that is available, or if your backyard is suitable think about tyres, hoops, swing ropes and climbing nets for going up and under, balls for throwing and tunnels made from large pipes
  • An area with quicksand and / or mud pit can also become a part of the obstacle course, or can be used to dig for buried treasure, for the younger children
  • Making mud pies with worms, is also great fun
  • Set up an orienteering course for small groups, so that instructions can be followed using the compass from the invitation
  • A treasure hunt can include instructions that lead to finding pieces of a puzzle along the way, which is solved at the end of the hunt (some obstacles can be included as a part of the hunt too)
  • A workshop can be conducted showing guests a number of survival skills and then these skills can be tested in a number of games such as knot tying, rope climbing, food finding and water collecting, etc
  • Small groups can also be organised to build their own bridge, raft or shelter. You can think small and use things like pipe cleaners, paper and cardboard, string, spaghetti, marshmallow and other household recyclables. Or think BIG and use rope, cardboard, sticks etc. so that these things can be used to get across the mud pit, quicksand or pool (if available). This can all be a part of the obstacle course, treasure hunt or survival / orienteering games
  • For younger children, rethink old party favourites like pass the sack, musical stools or snake tiggy

The extras

And to ensure the birthday party has the adventure feel right from the start use invitations written in invisible ink and delivered in a bottle (give some instructions too). Attach a tag with the birthday details to a compass, magnifying glass or flashlight or use camouflage paper for a great invitation too. Decorate your backyard to look like a jungle or island paradise and add a tent and some camp chairs and tables. Use brown, orange and green streamers and rope to enhance the jungle feel and put up some hazard, no entry, trespassers prosecuted and skull and crossbones signs. Hang some lanterns around to continue the theme with some plastic snakes and spiders in the trees and organise a campfire (but if lighting it, always think safety first). The tent can be decorated to look like a mess hall and serve food on silver trays with disposable cutlery and for the party favour think of a camouflage costume that can be worn at the party and then taken home (it won’t matter then if it gets dirty or ripped). Or a backpack with survival gear, that can also be used on the orienteering challenge and finally, bug catchers are a great favour for younger party goers.



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Choose the Right Lighting for Your Home

When deciding on lighting for your home, there are a few things to consider. Lighting can help bring atmosphere and create atmosphere in a room. Let's talk about the intensity of light, types of lights and how they will suit your home.

If you need lighting to study or view detail, that will first and foremost, guide the lighting you will be purchasing. Or if you simply need to create a relaxing mood, you might choose less intense lighting.

Your kitchen, bathroom, office or study area will generally need bright lighting. Lighting in bedrooms, living room and dining room may be softer. However, you may want brighter options in those same rooms when you need more lighting for certain activities. For example, if you're doing craftwork or other detail-oriented tasks at the dining room table, you'll want the option of having brighter light.

If you're deciding on what type of bulbs you need, let's consider three types: incandescent, fluorescent and halogen. Incandescent provide a much better light than fluorescents, but they burn hotter, use more electricity and need to be replaced more frequently. Fluorescent lighting is more cost-effective, but produces a more harsh light. This type of light is typically used in areas that require bright lighting – possibly in workshops, offices and even the kitchen. Halogen lighting appears more natural and mimics sunlight, which is a unique feature. It is more expensive, but uses less energy and burns longer than incandescents. However, consider that halogens burn very hot and may bring up some safety issues.

When deciding how much light your room will need, you can perform this simple calculation:

Room Length X Room Width X 1.5 = Number of Watts Needed

In other words a 10 x 10 room should have 150 Watts of light. That means a light fixture of 2 or 3 60-watt bulbs (with 2 being more dim) would do the job. If you need more light in a room, you'll want to increase that wattage.

Whether you choose ceiling lighting (track lighting or chandelier, for example), wall lamps, floor lamps, table lamps or a combination of all those things will depend on your personal style and the space in your home. As noted earlier, overhead lighting can always provide more intense lighting, when needed. It can be set on a dimmer or you can choose to have the lamps in the room to provide more sunlight lighting when you prefer.

If you have special decorative pieces or artwork you'd like to accent, consider spotlights. You might try a halogen light that mimics sunlight to provide a natural look or you may find an incandescent light works best.

Before shopping for lighting, determine your room's size, the function of your room and the mood you want to set. That will help you choose just the right lighting for you room.



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Lighting People for Stock Photography

Taking pictures of people in stock photos can be very tricky. There are many different factors that come to play in order to make a photo look sells worthy. Stock photos of people need to have lighting that looks perfect and is perfectly lit. Harsh shadows are a definite no in stock photos unless you are specifically trying to get that specified look.

If you take a look at stock photos of people they all usually have diffused lighting. The transition from light to dark is seamless and very soft. The lighting is usually very even through the entire picture. Shadows are never present unless desired. Stock photography will require some good knowledge of lighting properly.

A good start for lighting people would be the key light. This light will be the main light of illumination of your person of interest. Placing the key light on the same axis of the lens will make less shadows and a more flat picture. This type of light placing will make for very even lighting and can reduce blemishes and such. Another option is to place the key light to the side of the subject thus creating side lighting. Side lighting can be very harsh and very diffused. It all depends on the fill light.

The fill lights primary purpose is to fill in the shadows that are cast from the key light. An actual fill light can be used or reflectors can be used as well. The fill light is placed usually on the other side of the subject. It is on the opposite side of where the key light is at. The fill light must have a light intensity that is either equal to or less than the key light. If it is more than the key light it becomes the key light.

A back light can also be used to create a halo effect around the subjects outline. This will distinguish the person from their background. A background light also can be used to light the background. You can have many lights for a single photograph. It all depends on the desired effect you want.

When lighting for people in stock photography or any type of photography you can always default to the high key lighting with even balance of light and such. However, is this really going to help show the subject better? More advanced lighting actually is for the purpose of showing the character of the person being photographed. You can use lighting to make a person look scary, powerful, weak, happy, etc. Lighting can make a person look like they have more of a personality. Using lighting to add impact to your stock photos will be very beneficial and can make your photo much more high quality and profitable.

The color of light used is very important as well. Using the right color of light can make a subject look healthier and more vibrant. Using the wrong light hue will result in a sickly looking person. Do not simply skip out on the details of light when taking stock photos.



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Effective Lighting Tips For Your Bedroom

Bedroom Lighting needs to be carefully thought out and planned because usually the bedroom tends to function as multiple rooms and can require effective task lighting for its various roles. The bedroom can double up as a study, or a television room, or as a reading room and most usually as a dressing room and sometimes it has to function as all these rooms!

Also the bedroom is the first room you see in the morning upon waking and is the last room you see at night before going to sleep. Given that its main function is to be a room of rest, tranquility and comfort, this is one room where getting the lighting right is of paramount importance.

The color scheme of a bedroom has a large role to play in the mood and ambience of the bedroom. And the way in which lighting is used to great effect in a room, will depend on the color of the walls and the furnishings in that room. For instance, bright colors such as orange and yellow are very popular for young children's rooms, pink tend to be more popular with girls, blue is thought of as a cool and calming color. No matter what color the room, by using suitable lighting fixtures, it is possible to change the effect and ambiance of the room by day and by night by simply using different types of lights. An example would be having a blue room – during the day this would come across as being calm and tranquil though, by using color-tinted lamps and warm-colored lighting and having bedside lamps with colored light bulbs, the room can take on a more warm and welcoming appearance by night.

As noted earlier, effective task lighting is key to good bedroom lighting and can be provided through a variety of different ways. Fixed fittings are one option but whilst they remove dangling wires and the risk of overturning table lamps etc, they may confine the bed to a particular place in the room. Portable lighting is the other option and effective task lighting in bedrooms can be easily realized using adjustable reading lamps near to the bed to facilitate reading or desk lamps for the dressing table areas. It is also possible to use special clip-on reading lights (for the bedhead) or spotlights clipped to a wall shelf or even use a floor standing uplighter at each end of the bed.

If the room does not need to be bright lit up, then table lamps dotted around the bedroom are sufficient and can create a low-lit, cozy and comfortable bedroom. Usually two light fixtures at either side of the bed and a few table lamps placed on a desk or dressing table will suffice.

It is possible to use the more familiar lighting effects, commonly used in other rooms, to great effect in the bedroom. For example, effective use of picture lights to create specific focus on portraits or paintings hung on walls as well as using uplighters under a bay window to highlight curtains – these methods are just as effective in the bedroom as they would be in the living room or hallway areas.

For more dramatic bedroom lighting effects, consider placing a linear light underneath the bed itself – this results in a beautiful warm glow and gives the appearance that the bed is almost floating. The same sort of effect can be achieved by placing light fixtures under the bottom of shelves.



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Home Theater Lighting

It is ideal for home theaters to deploy indirect lighting, placed just behind the TV screen. However, this is not achievable in many cases. The next best thing is soft light off to the side. Total darkness is as bad as excessive light. While too much light tends to wash out the pictures, too little light can cause eyestrain. When lighting your home theater, try to attain a balance between what is best for the system and what is best for you. Consider the use of dimmer switches. They can alter the ambient level of light and are comparatively inexpensive and easy to install. There are models that are controlled by remote controls, and they make for a romantic setting.

Pegasus Associates, one of foremost companies in the area of home theater lighting, provides several choices for home theaters that include a fiber optic star ceiling kit, dimmers, recessed lighting, as well as LED pathway lights.

The company also provides over 100 models of Lutron dimmers that are perfect lighting systems using magnetic low voltage transformers, low voltage transformers or no transformers at all.

Pegasus Associates Lighting has also come up with a fiber optic star ceiling kit that makes the ceiling come alive with numerous stars. Ceilings illuminate with star points through this stimulating architectural lighting effect in home theaters, bathrooms, play rooms, bedrooms, family rooms, entryways, dining rooms, etc. This same system is ideal for merchandising displays and trade show exhibits.

The company offers 4 diverse LED, in-wall nightlights that include a louver model and an outlet model.

Also, Pegasus Associates offers a broad variety of line voltage and low voltage recessed lighting accessories and fixtures.



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Energy Efficient Lighting

Over the next few months we shall consider many types of energy saving products and how they can be integrated into the business environments.

The first item we shall consider is lighting. Lighting can consume a significant amount of the electricity used in the running of an organisation, and this can be as much as 50% of the total demand dependent on building type and use.

It is commonplace to see buildings at night with many or all light fittings glaring away with minimal or no occupancy within the specific rooms. Furthermore in daylight periods the same fittings will more than likely be switched on in the morning and rarely go off until the cleaner goes home after hours regardless of the requirement for lighting. The advent of open plan office areas also means large areas of buildings are controlled in a uniform way with no deference to the ambient light levels or occupancy.

We have been in some of the largest Comms Rooms in the UK and witnessed every single light fitting on in an un-occupied space (which also raises the heat load of the room, which in turn increases the load on the Air Conditioning or Chiller systems which has to work harder to keep the room cool thus using more un-necessary electricity!)

So what can be done as the standard notices stating “please turn off the lights” appear to have little effect in certain environments?

The only answer is to remove the human element with the installation of automatic controls that recognise the occupancy levels within the work space and adjust the lighting provision to suit. This could be as simple as a retro-fit to existing fittings, or a new installation of “smart” fittings that will not only take occupancy into account, but will also allow for the natural light levels and adjust the light fitting output to achieve the desired illuminance thus reducing further the electrical consumption.

Not all existing fittings will be suitable for retro-fit of controls but if a replacement scheme is viable and the fittings correctly specified the payback of investment can be as low as 12 to 18 months whilst also achieving significant reductions in CO2.

Electricity will, unfortunately, only get more expensive and the drive has to be to get consumers to reduce their demand and this means that Energy efficient lighting is a simple first step in achieving this goal.



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