How to Go About Dim LED Lighting

The growing awareness of environment concerns that energy saving devices are gaining considerable prominence. In the past decade one such effective means is the LED. LED lighting has come to become the most significant aspect of any house or commercial establishment. LEDs are used today in a variety of forms like LED tubes for lighting up the workspaces and in the house for kitchen and working desks, LED flat panels for lighting up certain areas of the house, they being flush mounted are preferred as they do not alter any architectural design of the house.

The last few years have resulted in further focus on the environment aspect of energy savings and this has resulted in the development of dimmers for further optimizing electricity usage. There are some significant advantages of using dimmers and this subordinate resolved in their popularity among the consumers.

Advantages of Dimmers:

– Convenience and improving ambiance: Homes are becoming increasingly automated. Lights as part of the automated system can there before be dimmed depending on the time of the day to ensure optimum light maintenance, some are even equipped with intelligent systems which switch off the lights in the absence of any person. They also enable the user to give a nice feel to a house or office using the lighting systems, thus improving ambiance.

– Energy saving: As the intensity of light can changes depending upon the need of illumination required, it helps by optimizing the use of electricity and in the process it also reduces electricity bills.

How to dim an LED?

There are two techniques used when dimming LEDs, PWM and Analog. Both techniques come with their own advantages and disadvantages.

PWM dimming mainly involves switching the light bulb on and off at an extremely high rate, the advantage of this process is because the quantum of current passing through the LED remains the same, the color of light does not change.

Analog dimming meanwhile involves sending a variable current, the advantage here primarily being simpler logic circuits,

How to use dimmers in Induction lights?

Induction lights have recently reemerged as a strong contender in the lighting industry especially the outdoor lighting realm. They are typically used in gas station lighting, parking garage lighting and street lighting.

Technology also advanced in induction lighting, which involves the use of dimmers. Most of the times inductive lightings are fitted with a dual control switch or some sort of a bi-level dimming feature. Many of them are also fitted to smart and intelligent automated systems which regulate the induction lights for example the induction lights which are fitted in the parking garage now come with a dual switch which is connected to an infra-red system. The system normally maintains low illumination, however if it detects any human through the infra-red then it automatically switches to high illumination.

Thus, dimmers are helping us to further optimize our electricity usage and helping us to move to a more sustainable and friendly eco-system.



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Contemporary Lighting – Everything You Want to Know and More

One of the problems that you may run across when trying to decorate your modern home is finding the right Contemporary Lighting to illuminate the space. Surfing the web may only add to the confusion when one looks at the wide variety of Contemporary Lighting fixtures from which to choose. It seems like every manufacturer and retailer have their own ideas as to just precisely what Contemporary Lighting is or is not. It is difficult to even find sources that can agree on a precise start of the genre. Far easier is it to describe what Contemporary Lighting is NOT. For instance, Contemporary Lighting is not ornate like the traditional lighting fixtures nor does it have an emphasis on functional beauty like the Mission style.

The Contemporary Lighting style sprang from the Art Nouveau movement but with one critical difference: unlike Art Deco, the Modern or Contemporary style had absolutely nothing to do with aesthetics. Instead, the emphasis lie entirely with the idea of ​​functionality. World restructured architect Frank Lloyd Wright was a big practitioner and adherent of the Modern movement which gave birth to Contemporary Lighting. He joined the Bauhaus School and the Russian Constructionalists in their reverence for the functional while rejecting the inefficiency of aesthetics.

Fixtures of the Contemporary Lighting style generally have very smooth, white globes that mount to simple bell-shaped mounts. An excellent example of Contemporary Lighting is the "school light" fixtures so popular with designers for the past few decades. These lights feature a suspended globe that hangs down over an area and provides a virtual shadow-free ambient light. People decorating old industrial buildings that have been converted into lofts often make these lights their first choice. They also work great for people trying to think of how to light a converted schoolhouse or similar structure.

Contemporary Lighting fixtures emphasize very clean lines and a wide variety of metal finishes for the bases. Making use of the simple white monsters that typify the style, Contemporary Lighting provides ample ambient light without distracting attention away from the functional aspects of any living space. They may not be as ornate as the traditional Style, but the sheer simplicity is the beauty of Contemporary Lighting fixtures. Rather than draw attention to the fixtures themselves, Contemporary Lighting is a minority means to make any space more user-friendly and accessible.

The exact start date of the period may remain something obscure, but the defining characteristics of the Contemporary Lighting style remain solid. True to the nature of the style, Contemporary Lighting makes functionality the focal point rather than ornate beauty. With smooth white crystals mounted to a wide array of metal bases, the fixtures are easily distinguishable from the other lighting styles. Contemporary Lighting fixtures remain favorites of designers today and will continue to do so in the future as they provide people with what they seek: simple light from unobtrusive and functional fixtures.



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Photography – All About Correct Lighting

The word photography means "writing with light". Light is essential to making photographs and you must understand how to use it in order to make your pictures as interesting as possible. There are two basic types of light: natural and artificial. The first comes from the sun, the other from man-made sources.

Natural light generally reiterates to daylight, although moonlight qualifies too. For photographers, light during the day can vary. There might be a bright or hazy sun that causes shadows. Or it could be heavy and overcast. Daylight also exists in the shade, where subjects are shielded from the direct rays of the sun. Daylight exists indoors, too so not all natural light shots are taken outdoors.

Artificial light is illumination produced by man. It may be an ordinary light bulb, a fluorescent tube, a bright photoflood, a tungsten halogen lamp, an electronic flash, or many other types. Since these types of illumination can be used outdoors, too, not all photographs shot with artificial light are taken indoors.

Photographers also talk about ambient light, existing light and available light. Regardless of the term, this is light – whether natural or artificial- that is already present in the subject area. A photographer who shoots by ambient, existing, or available does not provide any of his own illumination.

Just as there are types of light, there are types of lighting that have special significance for photographers. For instance, directional lighting, such as that provided by the sun, flash, or tungsten halogen bulbs in reflectors, is more precisely described as being front lighting, side lighting, or back lighting.

Front lighting is the most basic for photographers, although not the most appealing. A long-standing rule that says to put the sun at your back so it shines on the front of your subjects was established for good reasons. Early films and camera lenses were not as fast as those in use today; they required considerable light to make an exposure. Old time camera and film manufacturers knew that bright and direct sunlight on the subject would provide an adequate image on the film, so they recommended it. Also, a subject illuminated directly from the front shows every detail because it is uniformly lighted.

Front lighting is still popular today, but many photographers find it unsatisfactory for portraits and other subjects. The reason is that front-illuminated subjects appear 'flat' because there are no shadows to give a feeling of depth. For this reason, front lighting is commonly referred to as flat lighting. Another disadvantage of front lighting is that people often squint because the sun is shining directly in their eyes.

Photographers have found that changing their camera angle or the position of the subject so that the main illumination is from the side gives more depth and interest to many of their pictures. This is especially true when shooting close-ups of objects. Side lighting can illuminate the left side or the right side of the subject, depending on your preference.

Backlighting reiter to situations where the main source of illumination is behind the subject, shining in the direction of the camera. Backlighting requires careful exposure readings so that the front of the subject will be properly exposed. If a reading is made of the backlight itself, the subject will be underexposed and appear as a silhouette. With portraits outdoors, backlighting allows your subject to have a natural expression without squinting because bright light is not shining on his face or into his eyes.

When strong directional light comes from both sides, the technique is known as cross lighting. It is normally used in studio situations with flash or tungsten studio lights, not under daylight conditions.



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Questions and Answers About LED Lighting – Why LED?

1.Q: What are the advantages of LED Lights?

A: LED (Light-Emitting Diode) Lights offer a multitude of advantages over traditional light sources including lower electricity consumption, much longer lifetime, higher durability, no ultraviolet and infrared radiation, low heat and smaller size.

2.Q: Can I directly replace my existing lamps with LED lamps?

A: The LED Lights we offer are direct replacement of incandescent, halogen and compact fluorescent lamps. This means that you do not have to do any changes to your existing system.

3.Q: Why should I choose LED lamps over the cheaper traditional lamps?

A: Consider not only the initial price of the lamp, but the true cost of light, which includes the cost of energy, replacement and maintenance costs.

– LED lights use much less energy. When installed at applications with long work hours the saved electricity cost can bring the payback time to less than 2 years.

– LED lights have much longer life, from 30,000 to 50,000 hours. Imagine that you do not have to change your lamps for the next 20 years, especially those hard to reach light fixtures.

For commercial applications long life LED Lights mean lower replacement costs and no more group relamping. Taken into consideration reduced maintenance costs, the ROI (Return Of Investment) time for LED Lamps can be less than 1 year.

LED lamps produce very little heat thus reducing the power used by your air conditioner.

LED light has no harmful UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared) rays.

LED lamps contain NO mercury like the fluorescent lamps. LED Lights are completely safe for the Nature and can be disposed as ordinary waste.

4.Q: Will the Low Voltage LED lamps work with my existing transformer?

A: Low Voltage LED lamps are compatible with magnetic transformers used with VAC lighting. If you have an electronic transformer one LED lamp may not work due to its very low power consumption. To work properly most electronic transformers require a minimum load greater than the 3-watt used by our LED Spot Lights. When connecting a few LED lamps to one transformer the load increases to a point where the use of an electronic transformer is acceptable.

5.Q: How does a LED work?

A: The LED (Light Emitting Diode) is an electronic light source that works by the effect of electroluminescence. When a semiconductor diode is turned on electrons recombine with holes and energy is discharged as light.

6.Q: What is the color of the light from a LED?

The light color of LED Lamps is measured by Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) in Kelvins. Contemporary High Power LEDs are covered with phosphor to convert light from a blue LED to a wide spectrum white light. Most common LED Light colors used are:

Warm White (Soft White) – 2,700 – 3,300 K – the color of the light of a traditional incandescent light bulb

Cool White – around 4,000 K – similar to moonlight, xenon lamp light color

Daylight White > 5,000K – looks like flashlight, or typical daylight.

7.Q: What is Color Rendering Index?

A: The Color Rendering Index (CRI) is measuring the ability of a light source to simulate the colors of different objects accurately in comparison with the sunlight. Although there are critics of the subjective color rendering in practice, the CRI is widely used as a measurement of the quality of the light. Higher CRI corresponds to etter quality light, in scale from 0 to 100.

8.Q: What is the CRI of LED light?

A: Generally LED lamps score above CRI 80, which is higher than many other light sources. LED Lamps with CRI above 90 are used for visual inspection tasks.

9.Q: How efficient LED lamps are?

A: The output of light sources is light and heat. The higher the ratio light to heat, the more efficient the lamp. Today’s high efficient LED lights have efficiency of about 50 %, compared to standard incandescent lamp with 2-3% and fluorescent lamps with 15-20% efficiency.

LEDs naturally have directional light, this means that the light is easier to manage with less losses. That presents an even greater advantage in regards to LED lamps’ high efficiency over all other existing light sources.

10.Q: What is luminous efficacy?

A: The luminous efficacy is the light output per unit power input. It is measured in lumen per watt (lm/W). Nowadays commercially available LEDs have efficacy of 130 lm/W for cool white and 107 lm/W for warm white light (CREE XLamp MX-6). This is much higher compared to incandescent bulb that produces 15 lm/W and fluorescent lamp with 60-70 lm/W.

However, the efficacy of a single LED should not be mixed with the efficacy of the lamp. Many manufacturers and resellers state the LED Lamp Light Output as sum of the output of the individual LEDs. This is not correct because there are always losses from light trapped inside the lamp. The efficacy of a LED Light Lamp, also called LED Light Engine, can be increased by better design and using high quality materials.

11.Q: Is the lumen per watt the only aspect I should consider when choosing a LED Light?

A: No, you should consider also the CRI (quality of light) and your individual visual preferences. Some people like the more yellow Warm (Soft) White light that resembles the light from the incandescent lamp. Other prefer the brighter and more true-color rendering Cool / Daylight white.

12.Q: What is the lifetime of a LED Lamp?

A: When properly installed and well ventilated, LED Lamps will very rarely burn. However, the brightness of the LED light fade over time, so LED Lamp’s life is measured by 2 characteristics – how much will it fade after 1,000 hours of exploitation, and when the brightness will reach 70% of the initial value.

Quality LED Lamps are rated at less than 3% light output decrease for the first 1,000 hours, and 30,000 to 50,000 hours for the 70% decrease, which is the standard for commercial lighting applications.

Again, compared to traditional light sources, LED lights are superior regarding lifetime.

13.Q: Does the lifetime of a LED Light Bulb shorten by frequent on/off switches?

A: Unlike the fluorescent lamps, lifespan of LED Lamps is NOT influenced by frequent switching.



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Which Style of Chandelier Suits Your Lighting Needs?

When it comes to lighting effects, not all chandeliers are alike. Here is a run down of the different types of chandeliers and the type of light they are likely to cast over your dining room
table.

Late Victorian: The late Victorian style of chandelier lighting is very similar to the late seventies style of chandelier. This style consist of stacked circular glass blown globes that are stacked in brass wheels of usually eight and then four tiers. This type of chandelier casts a very soft pearly glow and look best in a dim wood paneled room. The more stark seventies versions with the pure white opaque glass look best hanging over a kitchen table and tend to cast a much brighter light.

Gas Electric: This style of chandelier consist of tulip shaped flutes and is usually made of heavy engraved glass. In Victorian times there would have been candles inside these frosted flutes
but now a days there is candle shaped light bulbs or regular light bulbs. This style of chandelier which is usually mounted on a metallic wheel, whether it be brass, iron or metal, are usually very bright and sometimes look better somewhere like a bathroom where you need lots of light and not necessarily in a dining room where something more subtle is required.

Arts and Crafts: You know you are looking at an Arts and Crafts style of chandelier if the glass shades are dangling downwards from the wheel rather than sitting like cups on the rim of the wheel. This is characterized by balanced mobiles that consist of two to four to six lampshades on a rustic looking metal frame that hangs from the ceiling.

Mission Style: If the chandelier has black iron limbs or wheels then it is probably mission style. Mission style chandeliers usually also have square shades made of streaked white or pearly opaque glass. This type of chandelier usually casts a dimmer light then most.

Wagon Wheel: This eclectic chandelier was a common sight in the suburbs in the seventies and basically consist of a wooden wheel that was topped with miniature lamps shades. It casts a
nice, yellowish dim light for a dining room.

Atomic Age: Also known as a fifties revival style, these are the chandeliers that look like metal starbursts from which shoot multicolored Christmas bulbs. This unique style never looks that dated as it looks both modern and antique at the same time and the light that it can cast is often pretty because of the different colored bulbs. It does however cast a dimmer light than most.

Art Deco Chandeliers – These are getting rarer and rarer and cast beautiful soft lights the colored round pendant drops and flower shaped flowered shades that are characteristic of the style. The glass on an art deco chandelier is often green or pink and it can also be frosted or streaked with color.



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Garden Lighting – Choose What Suit You

Gardens are the important parts of your home that you need to have a keen eye on. They are the natural beauty of a house that adds a sense of belong to nature. Gardens also present the opportunity to showcase your skills and talent in a way that would engage you in some productive activity. Garden lighting, hence, is much more than just the light that you get in your landscape that you love – it is an ideal way to beautify your homes and enjoy the ambience that a well lit garden could create. has now evolved into a serious market, which is evident from the numerous options available in light your garden to perfection and to your satisfaction. Whether it is about solar lights that require no electricity to brighten up your night, or about a whole range of wall lights, decking and patio lights or lanterns, you have an inspiring range for you to choose your garden light from.

Consider the garden zone mini flood light, for instance. This mini flood light is made of bronze and is perfect for a compact garden that is to be lit bright. You could mount this mini light on a spike that could be attached to the ground using the accessories that come with it, or you could mount it on to a fence. with bronze lights come with the dual advantages of power as well as evoking memories of the good old days in terms of quality, relability, style and outlook. A garden could also be made vibrant with submerged, tiltable spotlights with adjustable lenses, which are used extensively to highlight certain aspects of your landscape.

If you are looking for brightness as a preliminary consideration, you should do well to choose a Roma Solar garden, which would be many times brighter than standard solar lamps, working with lithium ion batteries that are not only powerful but are also eco-friendly. You could bring about a romantic feel to your garden by choosing lamp posts as your preferred partners, structures that are aesthetically made with lantern panels made of separate glass pieces. There could be no better way to garden light than choosing the Victorian style lamp posts that would give your garden looks and lighting. Garden lighting could also be drive way lighting or path lighting for low level plants or paths, equipped with reflective shields to reduce glare. With garden lighting, you have the choice.



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Baby Photography – Lighting Tips

In baby photography one of the biggest challenges is lighting.

Lighting babies and children is something that comes with experience. As with lighting any other subject, the most important thing is that you become familiar with a few basic setups, and then adjust the setup to suit the particular situation and subject.

When it comes to diffusing the light you have a choice of brollies or softboxes. My preference, in the studio is the softbox. When I rolled out customers home I used translucent shoot-through brollies. One of the main advantages with the softbox is that it leads all of the light forward. With the shoot-through brolly some of the light escapes from the edges and bounces back toward the camera. With this you need to be careful of flare so always shoot some test shots first and remember to use a lens hood.

Translucent brollies also give a nice effect if you shoot the flashgun back into them and reflect it back out toward the subject. To keep the lighting soft you do need to get in very close if you use this method. The reason for this is that you increase the distance of the light from flash to subject, and as you know a distant light causes a harsher shadow.

Reflective brollies are less useful than the translucent shoot-through style; they are too harsh for most types of portrait work. That said if you are looking for a hard light they are fine, but I can not imagine a parent being happy with a harshly lit shot of their baby! Reflective brollies are however good for lighting backgrounds.

The main reason for keeping lighting simple for baby photography is their volatility! For example you could be ready to take the shot and the baby crawls out of 'position' … if your lights are 'clinically positioned' and very directional the baby will quickly move out of the shooting zone.

If you keep your lighting basic, for example two large soft boxes, then it gives you more latitude for movement.

A relatively flat, even light generally gives the most pleasing results for baby photography. As a starting point I like to place a main light, either reflected from an umbrella or diffused through a softbox, between 35 and 45 degrees to one side of the subject, then use a similarly diffused fill light at 1/3 to less exposure next to the camera as a fill light. I then adjust the lights to suit the subject's features in a flattering way.

An extremely fine-featured child often benefits by making the light "harder".

To achieve this, move the main light closer to the 45 degree position. Conversely, a child with large, sharp features or skin blemishes, such as a rash, will benefit if you move the light closer to the 35 degree position (ie back round closer to the camera) and lessen the power difference between the main and fill lights for a softer look.

When using a harder, more dramatic light on children, it is important not to over-do it. When seeking a more formal, dramatic effect, I usually shift the main light to between 45 and 55 degrees. The fill light should remain near the camera. You may want to lower the power of the fill light to deepen the shadow areas, but with baby photography I generally find that it's best to keep the ratio within one stop.



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Antique Lighting – An Ideal Way To Give Surprise To Your Wife

Are you planning for a surprise for your wife? Well, them I am sure that it makes you feel one of the most confused and lost man on earth. You should always spice up your married life after certain point of time. Otherwise the relationship becomes monotonous and definitely boring. When it comes to surprises and gifts, there is not any prefect time for it. It could have been planned at any time, even in the middle of the night.

In today's competitive world tensions, deadlines and stress has become a part of your life. Out of stress you tend to forget all your special days. This can definitely affect your relationship.

Whenever it comes to gifts or surprises for women any one can only think about fashionable clothes, lingerie, and dinner and so on. Why do not you plan something new? Something which will make her spell bound. This, I am sure puts immense burden of thoughts on you. Most of the times, the solution is in near by but we tend to overlook it.

Let's plan a glamorous surprise for your wifey! Why do not you install an antique lighting in your bedroom? You will find a lot of options in the market. Antique lighting will not only illuminate the room or house but will also add a slight flavor of elegance and class. If love is in air in that case the right kind lightings will definitely add the flavor of sensuality. The right kind of antique lighting will no doubt enhance the room decor to a great extent.

Its time to select the right one

Now the varieties if designs available in the Market will definitely drive you crazy. You should always remember that purchasing an antique lighting is definitely a great investment. Therefore, consider buying it from a branded or reputed store. If you are planning to install it in the bedroom make sure to measure the bedroom. Typically, the bedrooms are little cozy that is the reason it is always recommended to fix a mini chandelier in the bedroom. Mini chandelier has obtained exponential growth in these years. You can also opt for antique lamps in your bedroom since it will provide you with a soothing effect and will definitely calm or tame down your restless mind.

Purchase a piece of antique lighting and also install it in the bedroom. Make sure that your love does not have any idea about this romantic surprise.

Now, here comes the surprise!

When she enters the bedroom at night I am sure that she will be tired and stressed out. Simply switch on the antique lighting and also decorate the room a little bit. Be assured that light of the antique lighting will rejuvenate her from within.



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Brighten Up Your Yard With Outdoor Lighting

OK, so you have finally finished landscaping your yard and it is beautiful … as long as the sun is up. Would not you like to enjoy the beauty after the sun goes down as well? The easiest way is with low-voltage landscape lighting. You have put a lot of time and thought into planning the placement of your trees, flowers, deck and pond. Now it's time to plan your outdoor lighting. Decorative outdoor lighting is easy to plan if you take it one step at a time.

The first step in planning your project is to decide what you want to illuminate and the effect you want. These two things will determine the type of lights you need and their placement. There are many different lighting techniques that will create different effects.

Spot Lighting showcases interesting features such as trees, shrubs, architecture and statuaries.

Shadow Lighting highlights interesting shapes or branch structure by casting a shadow on the surface behind the object being highlighted.

Underwater Lighting enhances the beauty of a pond, swimming pool or fountain.

Grazing brings out the texture of fences, chimneys, walls or other masonry.

Moon Lighting creates the soft effect of moonlight filtering down through tree branches.

Walkway Lighting adds safety, visibility and security for walking and can also highlight plants and shrubs along the walkway.

Step Lighting adds beauty to your decks and landscaping while allowing guests to navigate steps safely.

Security or Motion Control Lighting will help deter against crime and unwanted pests by eliminating dark areas where intruders can hide.

Silhouetting highlights objects with interesting shapes or plants with interesting branch structure by silhouetting the object on the surface behind it.

Sign Lighting will keep your signs illuminated and useful when it is dark outside.

Down Lighting simulates natural light for entertaining as well as illuminating for safety and security.

Up Lighting dramatically heights the beauty of flags, statue, trees and architectural designs, especially ones that are large or flowering.

Spread Lighting illuminates flowerbeds, ground cover and low shrubs. It can also be used underwater to illuminate an ornamental pond.

Deck lighting will bring your deck to life at night while it enables guests to navigate your deck safely. Deck fixtures can be installed on posts, below benches and railings or in step risers.

  • Test the placement of your lights by having a friend help you by shining a flashlight on objects you think you want to light. Make notes of what type of lighting is best in each location as well as the angle that best achieves the effect you want. Also, make sure the light is not going to shine in your neighbor's window.
  • Sketch a "bird's eye view" of your yard on graph paper showing main features such as driveways, gardens, walkways, trees and walls. Then plot where each fixture will be placed.
  • Decide if you want to use low-voltage or solar lighting. Solar outdoor lighting is good for aesthetic reasons and requires no wiring because they run off their own power. Low-voltage outdoor lighting is brighter than solar lighting and they do not require sunlight for power.
  • Once you decide how many and which types of lights you need, decide if you want to purchase lighting kits or a custom system. Kits are an easy way to get started and usually contain several types of lights, cable, connectors and controls. All of the necessary components can also be purchased separately so you can customize your landscape lighting project.
  • Make sure you get the right size power pack for your project. A salesperson at your hardware store can help you determine which power pack you need. You'll need to add up the total wattage of your lights and make sure the total wattage is less than 100% of the power pack rating. 80% is a good rule of thumb so you can add more lighting in the future.

Now that you've planned your outdoor lighting project, you just need to install it and fire up the barbeque.



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Comments: 5 Lighting Tips That Will Improve Your Home



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The Wonderful World of Lighting

Whatever the style of your home and home decor, whatever color your rooms are and no matter how they are furnished, lighting should be an integral part of the design.

In the same way that textures and colors of fabric are selected because they complement each other (for soft furnishings, for example), successful lighting is dependent on task, feature and general lighting all working in harmony. By carefully selecting and varying the levels and type of task,
feature and general lighting components, you can create the perfect light setting for every activity in your home as well as creating dramatic effects where needed.

In order to fully appreciate the different types of lighting fixtures available these days, this article will describe the features and benefits of some of these. After all, being properly informed will enable you to have the confidence to light up your home with style and ease.

Table lamps – Easily portable and can be highly effective lighting fixtures which can be positioned anywhere in a room. They can be located near sofas and chairs and hence function as task lights to help with reading. Table lamps positioned around the edges of a room can eliminate dark corners.

Pendant lights – These are hanging lamps which are suspended from the ceiling by a chain or rod. The light they produce can be dark and somewhat limiting though pendants themselves are often highly decorative and come in many different designs. It is usually better to supplement the light from pendants with other types of indoor lighting fixtures such as wall lights as well as floor and table lamps.

Chandeliers – Magnificent to look at and highly decorative chandeliers, most commonly found in large open hallway entrances and in dining rooms, add a touch of opulence and splendor by their presence. Usually, if used on their own as a light source, the light can be flat and boring.
Although, crystal chandeliers can create a lot of unwelcome glare. This can be resolved by installing a dimmer to reduce the output of the lamps and light and to use other forms of lighting, such as low-voltage downlights dotted around the chandelier, to shine through the chandelier.

Downlights – Another way of lighting up a room and in fact low voltage downlights produce a very crisp white light which can literally transform dark and dingy places. Usually, downlights are installed in fixtures in the ceiling or underneath cupboards. They are very versatile as they can be used for bringing light into the central area of ​​a room as well as be directed onto objects, pictures or ornaments, to provide both general and feature lighting.

Picture lights – Hanging pictures in your home is one way of adding to your home decor and what better way of providing even more focus to these with lights? Free-standing spotlights, directional downlights and frame-mounted lights can all be used. It merely
depends on how your picture is framed and which of these lighting fixtures will bring out the best in it. Free-standing spotlights are great if your picture is covered by glass as you want to avoid glass reflection. Simply use the spotlight as an uplight which cleverly reflects the glass reflection towards the ceiling. Another method is to use a recessed, low-voltage directional downlight which, when used correctly, can be a very effective picture light that prevents glare.

Wall washing – This is a brilliant, subtle way of softly illuminating plain walls. It can also be used to highlight ornamental objects to great effect. The lighting fixture is a small floodlight that can be ceiling-mounted, or placed at the top or bottom of a wall and effectively, will "wash" the wall
with a splash of light.



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Crush It on Amazon With Great Product Photography

Want to get more clicks & conversions on your Amazon listings? Upgrade your product photos with these guidelines.

Main Image

The main image is the first thing customers see. Since it appears as the thumbnail image when a shopper searches for a product, this picture will determine whether the customer even clicks on your listing. It's important that it stands up to the competition!

Amazon has strict standards for the main image. Here's a quick summary:

– Must be edited to have a pure white background (RGB 255, 255, 255).
– Must contain the full product, and ONLY the product. No confusing additional objects.
– Must be a professional-quality image: in focus, full color, and well-lit. No dark, grainy, or blurry images.
– Must fill 85% of frame or more.
– No additional text, graphics, or inset images.

All those rules can be hard to keep track of, but it's necessary to do so. If the main photo is not up to Amazon's standards, your listing could be suspended, costing you lots of time, stress, and money!

Beyond that, I suggest shooting the product from straight on-no weird angles. Make sure the lighting is natural looking and that the product appears true to color in the photo. Check out your competition, if possible. Imitate the photos that look and perform the best on Amazon. Also, pretend you are the customer. Which listings make you want to click? How can you arrange the product to make it look its best?

Supporting Images

The supporting images count, too! I suggest adding 5 to 8 photos that showcase the product in different ways. Here are some tips for getting the most out of your supporting images:

Show the Scale-Supporting images allow you to use backgrounds or other objects in order to showcase the size and scale of the product. Think everyday life and where / when / how your product will be used. If it requires snow – find snow! Does it go on a car? Head out to the garage. One of the easiest things to do is simply ask someone to hold it while you take a picture. Hands are a great way to demonstrate scale.

For example, I recently had to photograph a finger brace with lots of confusing straps and Velcro pieces. First of all, the product simply did not photograph well on its own-it just looked like a jumbled pile of Velcro. Plus, it was hard to figure out how the brace fit onto a hand. That photo shoot definitely required a hand model, both to make the product look good and to inform consumers on how to use it.

Use Informational Graphics-Although graphics of any kind are prohibited in the main image of an Amazon listing, you're allowed to use them in your selected images. You can use text and arrows to point out the features and benefits of the product and show its exact dimensions. You can also add badges (such as "Quality Guaranteed" or "BPA Free") which I highly suggest doing.

Get Some Close-ups-This is especially important if the product has lots of detail or an interesting surface finish. Texture, quality, and luxurious materials all benefit from clean, clear, close-ups!

Use a Model-Not every product requires a model, but in my opinion – 99.9% should have one. The .01% of listings I am letting off the hook involve clear poly bags, and even that is a stretch. It is my professional opinion that every product listing benefits from a model. Your model may be a child, adult, or animal. Consumers can put themselves into the model's shoes and picture themselves using your product. This type of psychology immediately increases conversion. I suggest using realistic models because you want to showcase the product, not the person. So, do not worry if you can not afford a glamorous supermodel, your girlfriend, grandmother, husband, or neighbor down the street will do just fine.



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Different Kinds of Candles That You Can Use in Your Everyday Life

Candles have a very special place in our world today. They are cheaper than torches and are a decorative object in the house too. Of course, there are different types of candles that are suitable for different purposes. Here are the three different types of candles that you can use.

Standard, Long White Candles:
One uses the standard, long white candles for lighting purposes. They use it for lighting up in darkness, or almost anywhere where electricity is not available, and light is required. In countries like India, candles and incense sticks are used to light and burst candles during festivals like Diwali, etc.

Aromatic Candles:
Aromatic candles are the candles that have special essence and aromas, which emanate when lit. These candles are used for decorative purposes, as well as for changing and adding to the ambience of a room. One uses aromatic candles most regularly while offering massages, etc. They are the cheapest and fastest way of changing and adding to the ambience and atmosphere of the room.

Decorative Candles:
Candles are not just used for lighting and aroma, they are also used for decorative purposes. Several companies and individuals design candles and sell them professionally. If you wish to get decorative candles for your house, you can check in your local area for professional candle makers. Alternately, you can also look for decorative candle sellers online.

Many decorative candle sellers will have their website, where you can find out everything about their services and the various products that they offer. Decorative candle making market is not a highly competitive one, as many consider it to be an alternate and non mainstream profession. You should need to go ahead with what you get, unless you are ready to pay a reasonable amount for the exact design and style that you want.



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Selecting a Subject For Your Art and Why – A View

What is the first thing that strikes a chord – right or wrong – when you glance at a painted piece of art on canvas? Its theme of course. It is often said that more than half of a painting's worth is its choice of subject. Choosing your subject somewhere has to be a trade-off between its saleability and your passion for a topic. Historically, era and the then prevailing genres affected paintings and their subjects, ranging from trite to more depth depictions. Throughout, the field of art has witnessed connections between the styles and the subjects of the painters. Arguably though, some preferred a wider selection and experienced with diverse thoughts.

Focusing back on the most ancient form of art, the 'Cave Paintings,' you can find the depictions of huge wild animals existing in those times, bountifully. These paintings mainly reflect the thought process of primitive human race, which had a day-to-day interaction with animals, and which main occupation was hunting. The 'Realist' painters concentrated on real life subjects – humans, flora, & fauna – and created lifelike works. Although, the nineteenth century 'Impressionist Art' also carried similar subjects, its focus on lighting, color contrasts, bold brushstrokes, and shadows, were its distinguishing features. The advent of Photography inspired and challenged 'Impressionism.' 'Surrealism,' on the other hand, was more of an 'Abstract' form of art, where artists used bold colors to capture their flights of fantasy. A manipulation of color schemes was the characteristic identifiable with this section of art. The paintings of 'Victorian' times were more of narratives, set in the themes of the Bible, mythology, literature, or modern life. Nonetheless, artists active during the World Wars often painted the gory pictures of the battlefields, the fight of the war prisoners and common masses. Present day art, better known as' Modern Art, 'correspondents most closely to its predecessor,' Surrealism, which is marked with fantastical and an abstract depiction of a wide variety of subjects.

The use of the medium of paintings also plays a role in the choice of subject. For instance, 'Oil' is considered to be the most versatile medium that gives the artist the liberty to choose from nature, people, occasions, abstract, still life, and various other subjects. Another handy medium is 'Acrylic,' with benefits similar to oil, the versatility of watercolors, and the additional quality of permanence.

Another, seemingly detracted factor that in fact greatly affects the subject is the artist's motive – whether it is purely to express his love for painting or to create a commercial product. However, there are certain subjects that both the schools of thought accept. Some of these themes include landscapes, erotic themes, abstract art, and portraits. The discussion on art and its attributes can go on endlessly, the bottom line remains that the manifestations of pure art cut across the boundaries of caste, creed, nations, and time!



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Preservation of Doll Collections

Restoration of collectible dolls is cost and should only be performed by an expert. To prevent the need for restoration of your doll collection the following preservation guidelines should be adhered to:

o Never display collectible dolls outside of doll cabinets if you are not prepared to dust them regularly

If you, like me, feel that dolls should be an integral part of your home decor then remember that these dolls need to be dusted regularly to avoid dust settling on the skin, in the wigs and on the clothing of the dolls. If dusting is not part of your daily routine rather place the dolls in a doll case to prevent excessive dust collection.

o Never display your collectible dolls in direct light -keep all lighting indirect

If you want to reserve your doll collection for future generations never display the dolls in direct sunlight as this can not only cause the dolls clothing to fade but may also cause coloring of the skin, especially that of vinyl dolls. Direct artificial light will have the same imaging effects as sunlight and if you must use lighting it is best to stick to incandescent bulbs. Another option is to protect your dolls from potential damage from lighting by using UV lighting sleeves. Should you wish to light up your doll case only use cold lights with UV filters and only switch these on for short periods when viewing the dolls.

o Never expose your collectible dolls to extreme temperatures

It is best to display your dolls in a temperature controlled environment as extreme hot or cold temperatures or sudden changes in temperature could cause permanent damage to any doll.

o Never display your doll collections on a bare wood shelf

Preserving the dolls clothing is just as important as the preservation of the doll itself. Bare wood contains an acid called Lignin which will discolor the dolls clothing over a period of time – always use a material barrier when displaying dolls on wooden shelving.

o Never allow children to play with your collectible dolls

The only exception to this rule is when your collectible doll has been manufactured as a collectible play doll. If you have young children, granddaughters or friends that have young girls it may be worth purchasing one or two collectible play dolls specifically for this purpose.

o Never store your collectible dolls under conditions which could lead to permanent damage

Use acid free tissue when storing dolls and never store dolls in cardboard boxes as damage can result from the acids contained in these boxes. Even the original box can contain sufficient acids to cause damage over prolonged periods of time. If your dolls need to be stored for any reason, remove all jewelry before storage. Never store dolls in what you presume to be an airtight container as many of these containers trap moisture which could result in mold or mildew which is actually impossible to remove.

So much time, effort, money and love goes into a doll collection. Preserve them for future generations and save yourself or your heirs the cost of restoration.



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Bearded Dragon Care Sheet – 6 Top Tips

This bearded dragon care sheet will hopefully help you better understand and care for your Bearded Dragon

I want to stress the importance of knowing what a bearded dragon needs to be healthy and happy, BEFORE you purchase one!

Healthy Looking Bearded Dragon:

Whether you decide to purchase your bearded dragon from a breeder or pet store there are certain things you must look for before you purchase your beardie.

They should be alert and active. They should be watching you with interest and curiosity. Their eyes should be clear and bright, you shouldn’t be able to see any puss or anything in the eyes.

When looking at their bodies you should look for any sores or infections of any kind, especially if the beardie is housed with other beardies. Male beardies will fight!

Make sure that where ever you purchase your beardie you have a reasonable time frame to return him if you need to. usually 14 days to a month is good, and that you take him to your Vet as soon as you can and have him checked over carefully.

Bearded Dragon Habitat

The bearded dragon needs room to run around, not climb too much. These pets are from Australia and are use to being able to roam free in the desert area. The best enclosure for beardies in my opinion is a glass aquarium. The aquarium should be big enough for them to run back and forth, but not that big they can not catch their crickets.

Beardies 3 to 7 inches can be kept in a 10 gal. aquarium while 7 to 12 in. beardies can be kept in a 20 gal. tank. Beardies over a foot long, which is 12 in., should be kept in a 40 gal. tank.

Lighting/Temperature

Make sure you have a Basking Lamp and a UV Bulb. The uv/uvb rays provide vitamin D which helps with the body’s ability to adsorb calcium. The temp should be around 90 degrees and 100 degrees during the day, and during the night the temp shouldn’t go below 70 degrees at all during the night, however if it does your beardie can survive one night if it drops that low then you should invest in a night heating light.

Make sure your beardie has a cool side and a basking side in his tank. Beardies love to bask during the day but you need to keep his food and water on the cool side

The best way to heat a glass aquarium is to use what is called under-the-tank heating pad, you can get one of these at most all pet stores. You do not, I repeat, do not want to use any kind of heating rocks or fixtures in the tank your beardie can reach.

Substrate:

Now this is a very tricky section, why? Because each dragon is different and it seems to depend on your region. I recommend reptile carpet because its easy to clean, its inexpensive, and it comes in variety of colors and sizes.

With young beardies try to use the felt type carpets, other types have loops that their nails will catch and can harm them.

Water Needs

Bearded dragons need access to water all day and all night. Their natural habitat in Australia provides water for them from the dew on the plant leaves and ground. They are use to drinking this way and a lot of beardies do not drink from any type of water dish.

It is important to make sure they are misted regularly with a misting spray bottle. For babies and juveniles mist them daily and also mist their perch and the sides of the glass aquarium. You should put enough mist on their heads until they no longer drink it or run off.

Also, your beardie needs to absorb moisture their the skin pores, so they should be bathed in a tub of water that comes no higher than their elbows for at least 15 to 20 minutes. You should do this daily for babies and juveniles and weekly for adults.

Proper Diet for a Bearded Dragon:

Bearded Dragons are omnivorous, this simply means they eat both meat and vegetables. Now they can not eat just anything, they have a very special diet you must follow to keep them happy and healthy.

The size of their food should no bigger than the space between their eyes, if given too big of food it can cause impaction and other health issues, so be careful on the size of food, any food items, you feed your beardie.

One thing some new owners don’t seem to realize is that baby beardies and juvenile beardies need to eat 2 to 3 times a day! Not just once a day.



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How to Take Awesome Indoor Portraits – Discover 5 Secret Keys to Amazing Portraits & Still Lifes

I would like to share with you some valuable keys on how to take better indoor portraits and still life photographs. These are insider secrets I've learned over the past 33 years as an avid photographer. They are not something I learned in a class or studied at college. Rather, they are things that I've picked up along the way that have helped make me the successful inspirational photographer that I am today.

Key # 1 – If you're doing a portrait of a person or a still life of an object, always begin by paying attention to the background. What's in the background? What is behind the subject? Ask yourself if the background is distracting for any reason. What is the lighting in the background like? Is it bright glaring light from the reflection of a car window, or is it a bright sky with too much light, or is it a bunch of junk in someone's garage or living room? You have to learn to pay attention to what's behind your subject because whatever it is, it's going to be in your photograph, and there's a high likelihood that it will be distracting. Once you observe the background, you must decide if it's a distraction or not. If it is, then you need to either move your subject or you need to move and shoot the subject from a different angle. Do whatever you need to do to get rid of a distracting background. If you're shooting a close up of a flower, you may need to bend an exquisite flower out of the way or break it off completely so that it's not in the way. In summary, pay close attention to the background, and make sure that it is not distracting. This one simple key will save you from wrecking many good photographs.

Key # 2 – The most important element in your photograph is the lighting. Ask yourself what the light is doing as you look through your viewfinder. Look for the highlights and the shadows and the midtones. Pretend you're color blind and try to see everything through the tonal composition of black and white rather than color. Colors are deceiving. They capture your attention with their beauty, but they disguise what the light is doing in terms of highlights and shadows. Do not let this happen to you. Learn to look past the colors and try to see the black and white and gray tones that they represent and are reflecting to your lens. A great photograph will have a broad spectrum of tones from very dark to very light, from true black to variations of gray to true white. The more variation of tones you are able to capture in the image, the better the lighting and contrast will be in the photograph. This is extremely important in black and white photography. It is equally important in color photography, but it's easier for people to get away with less variations of tones because most viewers will be distracted by the colors.

Key # 3 – One of the best kinds of light to use in portrait and still life photography is soft diffused window light. Let's say you want to take a photograph of your grandson. Find a room in the house that has natural diffused light coming in through the window. Do not use a room that has direct light coming through the window because that is too bright / strong. Instead, look for a window where indirect light comes in and diffuses through the room. That's the best light to use for a portrait or a still life.

Key # 4 – Your best friend should always be your tripod . Always take it with you wherever you go because you never know when you're going to need it. In the above scenario with your grandson, sit him near the window on a chair where he's comfortable and where he can sit still. Then set up your tripod, attach your camera, and check on the lighting in the room and on the subject's face. Use your built-in light meter to measure the amount of light on the grandson's face, and then adjust your aperture and shutter speed correctly. Remember key # 1 and make sure there's no distractions in the background. If you need to, hang a big blanket or sheet behind him to give you a neutral solid background that is not distracting and will actually enhance the subject. I forgot to mention that the reason you're going to need a tripod is that the light will be low in the room. Using a tripod will keep you from shaking the camera and blurring the image. You will also need to make sure that your camera does not use the built-in flash to try to make up for the low light conditions. You may have to disable the flash so that you can take the photo without it. One more point, instruct your subject not to move when you take the photograph; otherwise, the image will be blurred.

Key # 5 – Learn how to use your aperture and shutter speed in proper conjuction in order to control your "depth of field." You may be asking, "What in the world is depth of field?" Depth of field is simply how much of the depth of the photograph is in focus and how much of it is out of focus and blurred. In other words, depth of field is the zone of acceptably sharp focus surrounding the area actually focused on. Generally, when you are taking portraits or still life photographs, you want the background out of focus or blurred to some degree in order to enhance the sharp focus of the subject. Here's what you will want to do to achieve this result. Begin by focusing on the eyes of the subject, in this case, the grandson's eyes. This is the most important part of a person's face that needs to be in sharp focus. Then decide how much of the subject's head you want in focus. If you want to have the whole head in focus, then you should probably choose a middle aperture setting of around 5.6 or 8. If you decide to have only one eye in focus, then you would create a narrow depth of field by using a lower f-stop of 2.8. On the other hand, if you wanted his whole head in focus and the piano behind him in focus, you would need to create a deep depth of field by using a high f-stop of 16 or 22.

In conclusion, there are several keys to taking high-quality indoor portraits and still lifes. Remember to always check the background and make sure it is not distracting. Then study the available light that you plan on using and try to see the image through black and white tones, highlights, and shadows. Find a room in the house or in the basement where there is soft diffused window light to use to light the face of your subject. Make sure to always use a tripod so that you can set the shutter speed at the correct slow speed to capture the available low light. Using a tripod will keep you from shaking the camera and blurring the image. And finally, learn how to use your aperture and shutter speed in proper conjunction to control your depth of field to get everything you want in focus and everything else out of focus. Take a lot of shots and have fun with various poses.



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Aspects of a Full Home Energy Audit

Many homeowners are looking for ways to make their home more energy efficient and save money on their utility bills. Often times the energy company that performs a free home energy audit only checks obvious areas like lighting and air sealing.

It is important that your home energy auditor performs a complete home energy audit. Vital aspects of your home that should be checked in a home energy audit include:

*Heating and cooling system: Learning about the energy efficiency of your heating and cooling system is essential. If this is not checked there could be an abundant amount of energy being lost that you do not even recognize. Heating and cooling accounts for a large amount of energy use in your home and can be a major source of energy loss as well. Getting a complete home energy audit that assesses your heating and cooling system is something that you don’t want to go without.

* Sealing: Although air sealing throughout your home is an obvious check, make sure it fully evaluates the air sealing. Simply checking around windows is not enough for your energy audit. A proper one should check for air leakage in your attic, foundation, and around any vents that may be letting in unwanted air.

When places are found throughout your home that are not sealed properly, it should suggest fixes such as insulation in the attic or basement, caulk and weatherstripping around doors and windows, and foam gaskets behind outlet and switch plates on walls. These fixes will keep in the conditioned air so that you are not wasting energy heating or cooling the outside, unconditioned air.

* Insulation: They are only complete when the insulation in your home is fully assessed. Many homeowners believe they have enough insulation in their home when this may actually be a major cause of energy loss. Simply checking to see if there is enough insulation is not a complete energy audit either though. Assessing your insulation r-value is essential.

The r-value of your insulation determines how well your home is insulated. This value depends on the type insulation that is in your home. A full one will assess this and let you know if you need to improve the insulation in your home to save energy and money.

* Lighting: Lighting is a simple fix, but is not always addressed in a free home energy audit. A proper one should be extensive and definitely address the lighting in your home. With new lighting technologies, the energy you use for lighting could be reduced by 50-75%. Installing energy efficient compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) throughout your home will save energy and money every month.

* Appliances: It should also include an assessment of the appliances you already have and the way that you are using them. Dishwashers, refrigerators, washing machines, and dryers all must be checked out to achieve a proper understanding of the energy you are already using. When that is established, your home energy auditor should then be able to give you solutions to save money when it comes to your home’s appliances.

All in all, it is extremely important that you receive a whole-house energy audit to discover your home’s energy efficiency and ways that you can save money. If it looks appealing, make sure that the auditor addresses all aspects of your home and fully assesses every area where you could possibly be losing energy.



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The Amazing World of Color Contacts

Colored contacts are a rage today. Shedding the inhibition, more and more people are using them to make a style statement. Among color contacts, glow in the dark contacts are very much liked as they make the wearer stand out and get noticed in any crowd.

Glow in the dark contacts are also known as Halloween contacts. Young people who love parties are crazy about them for the special effects that they can create with them. Here they are also called the thematic contacts, special effects contacts and crazy contacts. Teenagers like the extra edge the color contacts give to their costumes during parts. Since lighting at rave parties are usually UV based, the glow in the dark color contacts really glow there. Unlike some people believe, the Halloween contacts do not shine when you stand in dark. The glow is the result of a luminous material placed on the lens's exterior to make them shine in the presence of UV lighting.

The desire to stand out and get noticed is a human tenderness, especially if you are a youngster. The theatrical glasses can certainly help you achieve your wish as the glamorous contacts will certainly make people turn their heads. It helps you to break the ice in parties and get connected with people.

However, while putting something on your eyes you have to be extremely careful. Slight carelessness can cause major or even lasting injury. FDA authorized color contacts have quality and will be perfect for your eyes. Beside, consultation with your doctor and getting a prescription from him will enable you safety. Contact lenses should be taken care of well. They should be cleaned regularly with good cleaning solution produced for the purpose. The lenses should be stored safely in their storing cases so that they are protected from dust, dirt, scratches etc.

If you have decided to buy contact lenses, do not fall for the cheap ones. Although you may save some money, the inferior quality glasses can harm your eyes. Color contacts that are priced low are manufactured with a single coating. Moreover, the dye on the outer part of the lens will be in contact with the wearer's eyes, leading to pain, irritation and even major injury. Color contacts made in layers will be equipped with a protecting sheet of plastic material amid the wearer's eyes and the colors.

Creating a style statement is everyone's dream but you have to do it without harming your eyes.



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Halogen Lighting – The Technology Behind It

Introduction

Tungsten Halogen lamps were invented in 1958 by the engineers of General Electric. Producing a very strong, white light they are now used in many applications from automotive to retail display lighting. To understand their many advantages and consequent popularity we will compare the way in which ‘normal’ incandescent lamps work.

Incandescent Lamps

A normal incandescent lamp comprises a tungsten filament inside a glass envelope filled with inert gas such as argon or nitrogen. An electric current heats up the filament to about 3000 degrees making it a thermal radiator. At this temperature about 5-10% of the electrical input is converted to visible light and about 90% to heat, which is not particularly efficient!

During this process the filament vaporises and tungsten atoms stream towards and deposit on the cooler glass walls of the lamp envelope, which, over time becomes black. You will probably have noticed this in some of your older household lamps.

This is bad news on two fronts: The filament is constantly degrading, and thus limits the life of the bulb. In normal use incandescent lamps typically last only 750 to 1,000 hours. The blackening of the glass also impairs the performance of the lamp for the deposited Tungsten material absorbs light. To decelerate this blackening conventional incandescent lamps have a ‘big’ envelope with a wide surface area to spread the deposited tungsten.

The Halogen Breakthrough

The engineers of GE discovered that when Halogen gas was added to the envelope tungsten atoms did not collect on the walls. The Halogen atoms attach themselves to the vaporised tungsten atoms and transport them back to the filament where they are reused. The Halogen atoms then go back out into the lamp atmosphere and search for more vaporised Tungsten atoms. This continual process is known as the ‘Halogen Cycle’, and it signalled a breakthrough in lamp technology and design.

  1. Since the tungsten filament is continually ‘re-fed’ with atoms it may be operated at much higher temperatures. This results in a much brighter, whiter light. Halogen lamps therefor have a better ‘light efficacy’. They produce about 20% more light per watt than an incandescent lamp.
  2. The whiter light that halogen lamps produce give a ‘better colour rendering’, as they identify more colours of the visible spectrum. Their use initially became widespread in retail display lighting for this reason.
  3. Because the filament is continually re-fed with tungsten it lasts much longer. Halogen lamps are now being produced with an expected life of over 4000 hours.
  4. They do not suffer from blackening meaning the lamp performs consistently throughout its life.
  5. Since blackening does not occur, halogen lamps have no need for a big envelope, and are thus much more compact. The envelope of a G4 12v 20w capsule, for example, is just over 1cm long

Conclusion

These advantages have made halogen lamps the number one choice of architects, lighting designers, retailers and home owners. Continual research and development by the major lamp manufacturers is leading to improvements in light efficacy, lamp life and performance. The future for halogen lighting looks bright indeed!



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Five Tips For Orchid Lighting

These tips cover the problems of orchid lighting. Lighting problems are frequently encountered by beginners as they are among the most difficult to resolve.

  • Orchids generally thrive with as much indirect light as you can provide. Especially in summer, do not expose orchids to direct light, as they can sunburn quickly. A good method to test whether an orchid is properly lighted is to feel the leaves. If they are hot, the light is too strong and they will form black burn spots. Move the plant away from the window, or move to a shady spot on the window sill. Another method to test light intensity is to look at leaf color – if the foliage is a rich dark green, it's probably not receiving enough light. Orchid leaves will be a light green color when they are receiving adequate light. Keep in mind that the more heat and light your orchid receives, the more air circulation the plant requires, and the more water the orchid will need.
  • As the sunlight softens in the fall months, slowly increase your orchids light exposure by moving them closer to windows or adjusting filtering curtains. During the winter months, try to give your orchids as much sun as possible, include direct sunlight in the mornings and late afternoon, so they will be encouraged to bloom. As the days grow longer in springtime, watch for signs of redness in leaf color, which indicates that the foliage is approaching its maximum light tolerance. Then slowly decrease light exposure by moving the orchids away from windows or adjusting your filter curtains to provide more shade.
  • To keep your orchids prominently displayed in your windowsills, use sheer curtains to control the amount of light reaching the plants. Thicker curtain fabrics or fabrics with patterns will reduce light intensity for summer, sheerer curtains allow more light to pass through for spring and fall. Curtain patterns and pleats will create alternate bands of light and shade, which simulates the natural environment orchids enjoy in trees. Since orchids thrive with strong, indirect light, the same filtering fabrics that protect your orchids will also provide good light levels in your home!
  • Turn your orchids periodically to provide even lighting and encourage even growth. Monopodial plants (such as Vandas and phalaenopsis) should be turned 180 degrees about once a month. Sympodial orchids (such as Cattleyas and Oncidiums) should be turned 90 degrees left and then 180 degrees right, successively, to keep their growth upright. Turn sympodials about once a week except when they begin to bloom. While blooming, do not turn the plants or the blooms may develop slightly twisted as they attempt to follow the light. After blooms have fully emerged, start the turning sequence again.
  • Individual orchids, even those of the same type, respond differently to light. If your orchids are inexplicably languishing, try moving your plants around to positions with different light intensity. If you have an orchid that is not blooming, try moving it to a sunnier area, especially if the leaves are darker green than the leaves on your blooming orchids. If your orchid leaves are turning yellow, it may be from excess light – move it back from the windowsill or try a filtering curtain to reduce light intensity. In late spring to early fall, you can move your orchids outside, hanging them from tree branches where they will receive good indirect light or light filtered through the leaves of the trees. Do not be afraid to experiment avoiding the extremes of strong direct sunlight or substantive shade.



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